Información sobre riesgo, prevención, detección, síntomas, diagnosis, tratamiento y apoyo para el cáncer.
Información sobre el tratamiento del cáncer incluyendo quirúrgica, quimioterapia, radioterapia, estudios clínicos, terapia con protón, medicina complementaria avanzadas.
OncoLink se complace en ofrecer una amplia lista de lista completa de los agentes quimioterapéuticos más comúnmente usados??. Esta guía de referencia incluye información sobre la forma en que cada fármaco se administra, cómo funcionan, y los pacientes los efectos secundarios comunes pueden experimentar.
Maneras que los pacientes de cáncer y las personas que le cuidan puedan enfrentar el cáncer, los efectos secundarios, nutrición, cuestiones en general sobre el apoyo para el cáncer, duelo/decisiones sobre el termino de vida, y experiencias compartidas por sobrevivientes.
National Cancer Institute
Ultima Vez Modificado: 9 de abril del 2008
This PDQ® cancer information summary for health professionals provides comprehensive, peer-reviewed, evidence-based information about the treatment of childhood cerebellar astrocytoma. This summary is reviewed regularly and updated as necessary by the PDQ® Pediatric Treatment Editorial Board.
This summary is intended as a resource to inform and assist clinicians and other health professionals who care for pediatric cancer patients. It does not provide formal guidelines or recommendations for making health care decisions.
In the summary, treatments are described as standard or conventional and under clinical evaluation. These designations should not be used as a basis for reimbursement determinations.
This summary is also available in a patient version, which is written in less-technical language, and in Spanish. [Note: The PDQ® childhood brain tumor treatment summaries are in the process of being substantially revised. This revision process was prompted by changes in the nomenclature and classification for pediatric central nervous system tumors. New PDQ® childhood brain tumor treatment summaries will be added and some existing summaries will be replaced or their content combined with other PDQ® childhood brain tumor treatment summaries in the near future.]
The National Cancer Institute provides the PDQ® pediatric cancer treatment information summaries as a public service to increase the availability of evidence-based cancer information to health professionals, patients, and the public.
Primary brain tumors are a diverse group of diseases that together constitute the most common solid tumor of childhood. Brain tumors are classified according to histology, but tumor location and extent of spread are important factors that affect treatment and prognosis. Immunohistochemical analysis, cytogenetic and molecular genetic findings, and measures of mitotic activity are increasingly used in tumor diagnosis and classification.
Refer to the PDQ® Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Treatment Overview summary for information about the general classification of childhood brain and spinal cord tumors.
The classification of brain tumors is based on both histopathologic characteristics and location in the brain. More than 80% of all childhood cerebellar gliomas will be pilocytic astrocytomas, which are also considered to be grade 1 astrocytomas. Most of the remainder will be diffuse or fibrillary astrocytomas. Malignant gliomas are rare. 1 The pathologic classification of pediatric brain tumors is a specialized area that is undergoing evolution; review of the diagnostic tissue by a neuropathologist who has particular expertise in this area is strongly recommended.
These generally low-grade, often cystic astrocytic tumors are localized to the cerebellum. Except for malignant gliomas, contiguous spread or metastasis outside that region is extremely rare. The presence of certain histologic features has been used retrospectively to stratify cerebellar astrocytomas into two distinct groups: pilocytic or Gilles type A tumors and diffuse or Gilles type B tumors; the latter tumors have a poor prognosis. 2 Expert neuropathologic review is important.
In general, tumors are separated into either cerebellar hemisphere or more diffuse, midline lesions. 1
Many of the improvements in survival in childhood cancer have been made as a result of clinical trials that have attempted to improve on the best available, accepted therapy. Clinical trials in pediatrics are designed to compare new therapy with therapy that is currently accepted as standard. This comparison may be done in a randomized study of two treatment arms or by evaluating a single new treatment and comparing the results with those that were previously obtained with existing therapy.
Because of the relative rarity of cancer in children, all patients with brain tumors should be considered for entry into a clinical trial. To determine and implement optimum treatment, treatment planning by a multidisciplinary team of cancer specialists who have experience treating childhood brain tumors is required. Radiation therapy of pediatric brain tumors is technically very demanding and should be carried out in centers that have experience in that area in order to ensure optimal results.
The designations in PDQ® that treatments are standard or under clinical evaluation are not to be used as a basis for reimbursement determinations.
Surgical resection is the primary treatment for childhood cerebellar astrocytoma. 1 2 3 Complete or near complete removal can be obtained in 90% to 95% of patients with juvenile pilocytic tumors. Diffuse cerebellar astrocytomas may be less amenable to total resection, and this may account for the poorer outcome. The extent of resection necessary for cure is unknown because patients with microscopic and even gross residual tumor after surgery may experience long-term progression-free survival without postoperative therapy. 3 4 Following resection, a postoperative MRI is obtained. Surveillance scans are then obtained periodically for totally resected tumors, although the value of this is uncertain. 5 The optimal use of radiation therapy is the subject of controversy. Treatment is often withheld in patients with residual disease until tumor progression has been documented. 6 Chemotherapy may be useful for delaying radiation therapy in the very young child with unresectable, progressive cerebellar astrocytoma. 7
Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's PDQ® Cancer Clinical Trials Registry that are now accepting patients with untreated childhood cerebellar astrocytoma. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.
General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.
Recurrence may take place in childhood cerebellar gliomas and may develop many years after initial treatment. Disease can be at the primary tumor site or, especially in malignant tumors, at noncontiguous central nervous system sites. Systemic relapse is rare, but may occur. At the time of recurrence, a complete evaluation to determine the extent of relapse is indicated for all patients. Biopsy or surgical resection may be necessary for confirmation of relapse because other entities such as secondary tumor and treatment-related brain necrosis may be clinically indistinguishable from tumor recurrence. The need for surgical intervention must be individualized on the basis of the initial tumor type, the length of time between initial treatment and the reappearance of the mass lesion, and the clinical picture.
Patients with cerebellar astrocytoma (pilocytic or diffuse) who relapse after being treated with surgery alone should be considered for another surgical resection. 1 If this is not feasible, local radiation therapy is the usual treatment. 2 If there is recurrence in an unresectable site after irradiation, chemotherapy should be considered. 2 There is little information regarding the activity of chemotherapy in this disease. Studies of novel therapeutic approaches that are designed to test the activity and toxicity of chemotherapy in recurrent brain tumor patients should be considered.
Check for U.S. clinical trials from NCI's PDQ® Cancer Clinical Trials Registry that are now accepting patients with recurrent childhood cerebellar astrocytoma. The list of clinical trials can be further narrowed by location, drug, intervention, and other criteria.
General information about clinical trials is also available from the NCI Web site.
For more information, U.S. residents may call the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237) Monday through Friday from 9:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. A trained Cancer Information Specialist is available to answer your questions.
The NCI's LiveHelp online chat service provides Internet users with the ability to chat online with an Information Specialist. The service is available from 9:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. Eastern time, Monday through Friday. Information Specialists can help Internet users find information on NCI Web sites and answer questions about cancer.
Write to us
Search the NCI Web site
The NCI Web site provides online access to information on cancer, clinical trials, and other Web sites and organizations that offer support and resources for cancer patients and their families. For a quick search, use the search box in the upper right corner of each Web page. The results for a wide range of search terms will include a list of "Best Bets," editorially chosen Web pages that are most closely related to the search term entered.
There are also many other places to get materials and information about cancer treatment and services. Hospitals in your area may have information about local and regional agencies that have information on finances, getting to and from treatment, receiving care at home, and dealing with problems related to cancer treatment.
The NCI has booklets and other materials for patients, health professionals, and the public. These publications discuss types of cancer, methods of cancer treatment, coping with cancer, and clinical trials. Some publications provide information on tests for cancer, cancer causes and prevention, cancer statistics, and NCI research activities. NCI materials on these and other topics may be ordered online or printed directly from the NCI Publications Locator. These materials can also be ordered by telephone from the Cancer Information Service toll-free at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237).
The PDQ® cancer information summaries are reviewed regularly and updated as new information becomes available. This section describes the latest changes made to this summary as of the date above.
Editorial changes were made to this summary.
This information is intended mainly for use by doctors and other health care professionals. If you have questions about this topic, you can ask your doctor, or call the Cancer Information Service at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237).
Endocrine System Cancers
Head and Neck Cancers
Urinary Tract Cancers
Bone Marrow Transplants
General Treatment Concerns
Newly Diagnosed Patients
Causes and Prevention
Legal and Financial Information for Patients
Cancer Resource List
Resources for Young Adults