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National Cancer Institute®
Ultima Vez Modificado: 1 de septiembre del 2002
UI - 11914533
AU - Lam WW; Liu KH; Leung SF; Wong KS; So NM; Yuen HY; Metreweli C
TI - Sonographic characterisation of radiation-induced carotid artery stenosis.
SO - Cerebrovasc Dis 2002;13(3):168-73
AD - Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Prince of Wales Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong, ROC. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To study the distribution, extent and sonographic characterisation of radiation-induced carotid artery stenosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. METHODS: The distribution of plaques, the extent of stenosis, and the sonographic characterisation of the plaque at maximum stenosis were recorded in 71 NPC patients. The results were compared with the ultrasound results of a control group of 142 patients presenting with symptoms of cerebrovascular disease or carotid bruit. RESULTS: NPC patients had a higher incidence of carotid stenosis (77 vs. 50.7%). The common carotid arteries were most commonly affected by radiation-induced stenosis (93/142 vs. 37/284 in the control group), whereas the carotid bulb was the most commonly affected (56/284) site in the control group. Significantly more NPC patients had moderate-to-severe stenosis (21/71 vs. 27/142). Analysis of the sonographic appearance of radiation-induced and atherosclerotic plaques showed more diffuse involvement in the post-radiation group. Non-calcified plaques and intraplaque hypoechoic foci were also more frequent in the post-radiation group. CONCLUSIONS: Radiation-induced carotid stenosis is more diffuse in distribution, is associated with more severe luminal stenosis and has different sonographic plaque characterisation compared with carotid stenosis without radiation exposure. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel
UI - 12076324
AU - Ho PS; Ko YC; Yang YH; Shieh TY; Tsai CC
TI - The incidence of oropharyngeal cancer in Taiwan: an endemic betel quid chewing area.
SO - J Oral Pathol Med 2002 Apr;31(4):213-9
AD - Graduate Institute of Dental Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
BACKGROUND: Oropharyngeal cancer is the one of the most common cancers in the world. The purpose of this study was to examine the trends in oropharyngeal cancer from 1979 to 1996 in Taiwan. METHODS: Traditional cohort analysis was employed to show the birth-cohort effect of oropharyngeal cancer incidence. Age-period-cohort model analysis was used to examine the age, period and cohort effect between intraoral and pharyngeal cancer. RESULT: A significant increasing trend in oropharyngeal cancer has been seen in males. The principal increases have been seen in tongue and mouth in males, and tongue in females. In males, an increasing trend was found in successive cohorts born after 1929. The increase in incidence of intraoral cancer of males was greater than the increase in incidence of pharyngeal cancer in the younger age group, more recent time periods and the younger cohorts. CONCLUSION: The increasing incidence in oropharyngeal cancer in Taiwan is probably heavily influenced by the rising consumption of alcohol and use of betel quid. The effect of these etiologies on intraoral cancer was more significant in recent time periods, later cohorts and the younger group.
UI - 12075196
AU - Rodu B; Cole P
TI - Smokeless tobacco use and cancer of the upper respiratory tract.
SO - Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2002 May;93(5):511-5
AD - University of Alabama at Birmingham, AL 35294-0007, USA. email@example.com
The most recent epidemiologic review of the cancer risks associated with smokeless tobacco use appeared in 1986, when 10 studies were available. This review describes 21 published studies, 20 of which are of the case-control type. We characterize each study according to the specific anatomic sites and according to the type of smokeless tobacco products for which it provides relative risks of cancer. The use of moist snuff and chewing tobacco imposes minimal risks for cancers of the oral cavity and other upper respiratory sites, with relative risks ranging from 0.6 to 1.7. The use of dry snuff imposes higher risks, ranging from 4 to 13, and the risks from smokeless tobacco, unspecified as to type, are intermediate, from 1.5 to 2.8. The strengths and limitations of the studies and implications for future research are discussed.
UI - 12148875
AU - Alcalde JM; Quesada JT
TI - Monitoring of partial pharyngeal reconstruction.
SO - Laryngoscope 2002 Mar;112(3):580-2
AD - Department of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery, University Clinic of Navarra, Pamplona, Spain. firstname.lastname@example.org
UI - 11928871
AU - Rubio L; Burgos JS; Lopez-Guerrero JA; Morera C; Vera-Sempere FJ
TI - Expression of p53 protein and tumor angiogenesis as prognostic factors in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients.
SO - Pathol Res Pract 2002;198(2):97-102
AD - Service of Pathology II, University Hospital La Fe, Medical School of Valencia University, Spain.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible prognostic significance of p53 protein overexpression and tumor angiogenesis (TA) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients, together with other clinicopathological variables. Forty-two NPC patients were evaluated in relation to survival. Nuclear p53 overexpression in neoplastic and endothelial cells was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with the monoclonal antibody DO-7 and the polyclonal antibody against factor VIII-related antigen, respectively. Thereafter, we evaluated p53 cases in order to determine their nuclear immunoreactivity from negative (-) to positive (+, ++, +++). In addition, microvessels were counted in the most active areas of tumor neovascularization or hotspots using an image computer analyzer (MicroImage). A Cox multiple regression survival analysis was used to determine the best prognostic indicators in NPC patients. As a result, tumor microvessel count, considered as a continuous variable, was the most important independent prognostic indicator in relation to survival (p = 0.0273), with a relative risk of death of 2,4399 [95% confidence interval = 1.1051 ; 5.3871] associated with the highest microvessel counts. Moreover, the only clinicopathological variable that demonstrated prognostic value in a Cox multiple regression survival analysis was histological type (p = 0.05). In addition, we did not observe any statistical association between intratumoral microvessel density (IMD), clinicopathological variables and p53 protein expression.
UI - 11936446
AU - Ilhan O; Sener EC; Ozyar E
TI - Outcome of abducens nerve paralysis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
SO - Eur J Ophthalmol 2002 Jan-Feb;12(1):55-9
AD - Department of Ophthalmology, Hacettepe University Hospitals, Ankara, Turkey.
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence, management and outcome of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients with NPC. RESULTS: Twenty-eight of 166 patients (16.8%) had cranial nerve involvement at the time of the diagnosis of NPC. Sixteen (57.2%) were identified as having abducens nerve palsy. In 25% abducens nerve palsy was the presenting symptom. Three patients were able to compensate for their diplopia after prism correction or botulinum toxin-A injection, and six (50%) completely recovered from abducens nerve palsy after either radiotherapy or chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Abducens is the most common cranial nerve involved in NPC, radiotherapy and or chemotherapy relieves the paralysis in half the patients. Prism correction or botulinum toxin-A injection are effective non-invasive procedures for patients with significant diplopia.
UI - 12112548
AU - Rogers SN; Gwanne S; Lowe D; Humphris G; Yueh B; Weymuller EA Jr
TI - The addition of mood and anxiety domains to the University of Washington quality of life scale.
SO - Head Neck 2002 Jun;24(6):521-9
AD - Consultant and Honorary Reader, Regional Maxillofacial Unit, University Hospital Aintree, Fazakerley, Liverpool L9 1AL United Kingdom. email@example.com
BACKGROUND: There are numerous head and neck specific quality of life questionnaires, each having its own merits and disadvantages. The University of Washington questionnaire has been widely used and is notable by the inclusion of a shoulder dysfunction domain, domain importance ratings, and patient free text. It is short, simple to process, and provides clinically relevant information. However, it has lacked any psychological dimension of quality of life. The aim of this study was to report the inclusion of two psychological domains (mood, anxiety) to the most recent refinement of the questionnaire (version 3). Questionnaires were sent to 183 patients alive and disease free after surgery for oral and oro-pharyngeal malignancy. Replies were received from 145 patients (79% response rate). RESULTS: The new domains (mood and anxiety) correlated significantly with the emotional functioning domains from the EORTC C30 and with the pain and appearance domains of UW-QOL. There were also significant correlations between the "global quality of life" item and the two new domains. Mood (p =.005) and anxiety (p <.001) scores were associated with patient age but with no other clinicodemographic variable. CONCLUSION: The addition of mood and anxiety domains makes the UW-QOL version 4 a single broad measure suitable for effective health-related quality of life evaluation in the routine clinical setting. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
UI - 12112552
AU - Wong ZW; Tan EH; Yap SP; Tan T; Leong SS; Fong KW; Wee J
TI - Chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy in patients with locoregionally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
SO - Head Neck 2002 Jun;24(6):549-54
AD - Department of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Centre, 11 Hospital Drive, Singapore 169610. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: Treatment of locoregionally recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is challenging because of prior radiotherapy, morbidities from disease recurrence, and limited therapeutic options available. METHODS: A retrospective study of patients with 1999, there were 42 patients; most were Chinese (98%) men (81%) with undifferentiated NPC (86%). A repeat course of radiotherapy was feasible in 20 patients and given concurrently with cisplatin followed by adjuvant cisplatin/5-fluorouracil (PF) (group 1). The remaining 22 (group 2) received palliative chemotherapy (PF) with a response rate of 50%. Significant morbidities resulted from cranial nerve palsies. The 2-year progression-free survival of patients in group 1 was expectedly better (58% vs 38%). Six (14%) developed systemic metastases at 12 months (median) from first recurrence. CONCLUSION: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy for locoregional recurrent NPC seems promising. The morbidity experienced resulted from locoregional disease with few progressing to develop systemic involvement. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
UI - 12112557
AU - Lin JC; Chen KY; Wang WY; Jan JS; Wei YH
TI - PCR detection of circulating tumor cells in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with distant metastasis: effect of enzyme and sampling.
SO - Head Neck 2002 Jun;24(6):591-6
AD - Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan. email@example.com
BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has a high potential to develop distant metastasis after radiotherapy. Cytokeratin 19 (CK-19) mRNA has been frequently used as a marker in the detection of circulating tumor cells of epithelial origin, but has rarely been investigated in NPC. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of blood sampling and different Taq DNA polymerase on the results of nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples from a total of 37 NPC patients with well-documented distant metastasis (M1) were collected before treatment. Eighteen patients had more than one blood sampling. Five different Taq DNA polymerases were used to test the blood from 17 patients. Peripheral blood of 37 nonmetastatic (M0) NPC patients was tested by the same nested RT-PCR system using multiple Taq DNA polymerases to evaluate the impact of multienzyme assay in the prediction of subsequent distant metastasis. RESULTS: Among M1 NPC patients, the accumulative positive rates of CK-19 mRNA were 22.2%, 44.4%, 70.6%, 75.0%, and 80.0% when one, two, three, four, or five blood sampling were taken, respectively. The accumulative positive rates increased as the numbers of different enzymes increased-from 35.5% by one enzyme to 82.4% by five enzymes. Six of 37 M0 patients had distant metastasis develop after a median follow-up time of 20 months. The detection sensitivity for four-enzyme test (5 of 6 = 83.3%) is better than that of one-enzyme test (2 of 6 = 33.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that multiple blood sampling or using multiple enzymes for nested RT-PCR assay significantly enhances the sensitivity in the molecular diagnosis of NPC metastasis. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
UI - 12017874
AU - Eckardt A; Rades D; Rudat V; Hofele C; Dammer R; Dietl B; Wildfang I;
TI - Karstens JH [Prospective phase II study of neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy in advanced operable carcinoma of the mouth cavity. 3-year outcome]
SO - Mund Kiefer Gesichtschir 2002 Mar;6(2):117-21
AD - Klinik fur Mund-, Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Carl-Neuberg-Strasse 1, 30625 Hannover. firstname.lastname@example.org
PURPOSE: The purpose of simultaneous chemoradiotherapy is to increase local-regional control and to decrease the incidence of distant metastases. Regimens containing cisplatin/5-FU chemotherapy are widely accepted as standard treatment in advanced head and neck cancer. Most studies reported promising response and survival data, but also severe mucosal toxicity. In recent years the newly developed drug Taxol demonstrated interesting activity in head and neck cancer as a single agent as well as in combination drug regimens. In the present outpatient phase II trial, we investigated the combination of Taxol/carboplatin with 40 Gy radiotherapy in a neoadjuvant setting of operable stage III/IV squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-three patients were enrolled in this trial weekly of Taxol (40 mg/m2) and carboplatin (AUC 1.5) with conventional radiotherapy (40 Gy). Within 3-4 weeks after chemoradiotherapy resection of the primary tumor and the regional neck nodes was performed. RESULTS: Fifty-two patients were evaluable for toxicity and response. Complete response was observed in 31 of 52 patients (CR 60%), and partial remission was seen in 21 of 52 patients (PR 40%). In 30 of 52 patients complete pathologic response (pCR 58%) was documented in the resection specimens. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival rate was calculated as 84%. CONCLUSION: Our present results demonstrated impressive clinical and pathological response rates of concurrent Taxol/carboplatin and radiotherapy as a preoperative treatment modality in advanced oral and oropharyngeal cancer.
UI - 12105785
AU - Ho WK; Kwong DL; Wei WI; Sham JS
TI - Change in olfaction after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal cancer--a prospective study.
SO - Am J Otolaryngol 2002 Jul-Aug;23(4):209-14
AD - Division of Otorhinolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Hong Kong Medical Center, Queen Mary Hospital, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, PR China.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the changes in olfactory function in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma who have received radiation to the head and neck. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Olfactory function of consecutive patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma was assessed prospectively before irradiation and serially up to 1 year after radiotherapy by the Sniffin' Sticks (Erlangen, Germany) olfactory function test and by a patient symptom visual analogue scale. RESULTS: Fifty-eight patients were recruited before radiotherapy was commenced. Three patients could not give a reliable response to the Sniffin' Sticks test even in this first assessment, and 7 patients did not return for evaluation after irradiation. Forty-eight patients were available for follow-up assessment. Mean olfactory threshold scores by the Sniffin' Sticks test were found to deteriorate significantly at 12 months when compared with the scores before irradiation (8.3 at 12 months vs 11.5 before irradiation; P =.001). Scores for olfactory discrimination and for identification did not exhibit any significant changes when assessed at 12 months (P >.05 for both). Subjective patient assessment of olfactory function with the visual analogue scale at 12 months did not demonstrate any significant differences when compared with patients' assessment before irradiation (P =.90). An increase in discharge was the only nasal symptom that demonstrated a significant change at 12 months when compared with the assessment before irradiation (P < 001). CONCLUSIONS: Deterioration in olfactory threshold scores was found at 12 months after irradiation and was not noticed by the patients. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.)
UI - 12118254
AU - Feng BJ; Huang W; Shugart YY; Lee MK; Zhang F; Xia JC; Wang HY; Huang
TI - TB; Jian SW; Huang P; Feng QS; Huang LX; Yu XJ; Li D; Chen LZ; Jia WH; Fang Y; Huang HM; Zhu JL; Liu XM; Zhao Y; Liu WQ; Deng MQ; Hu WH; Wu SX; Mo HY; Hong MF; King MC; Chen Z; Zeng YX Genome-wide scan for familial nasopharyngeal carcinoma reveals evidence of linkage to chromosome 4.
SO - Nat Genet 2002 Aug;31(4):395-9
AD - Cancer Institute, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, GuangZhou, China.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) occurs with high frequency in Asian populations, especially among people of Cantonese ancestry. In areas with high incidence, NPC clusters in families, which suggests that both geography and genetics may influence disease risk. Although the HLA-Bw46 locus is associated with increased risk of NPC, no predisposing genes have been identified so far. Here we report the results of a genome-wide search carried out in families at high risk of NPC from Guangdong Province, China. Parametric analyses provide evidence of linkage to the D4S405 marker on chromosome 4 with a logarithm of odds for linkage (lod) score of 3.06 and a heterogeneity-adjusted lod (hlod) score of 3.21. Fine mapping with additional markers flanking D4S405 resulted in a lod score of 3.54 and hlod score of 3.67 for the region 4p15.1-q12. Multipoint nonparametric linkage analysis gives lod scores of 3.54 at D4S405 (P = 5.4 x 10(-5)) and 4.2 at D4S3002 (P = 1.1 x 10(-5)), which is positioned 4.5 cM away from D4S405. When Epstein Barr virus antibody titer was included as a covariate, the lod scores reached 4.70 (P = 2.0 x 10(-5)) and 5.36 (P = 4.36 x 10(-6)) for D4S405 and D4S3002, respectively. Our findings provide evidence of a major susceptibility locus for NPC on chromosome 4 in a subset of families.
UI - 1869465
AU - Grau C; Moller K; Overgaard M; Overgaard J; Elbrond O
TI - Sensori-neural hearing loss in patients treated with irradiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
SO - Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1991 Aug;21(3):723-8
AD - Department of Oto-rhino-laryngology and Audiology, University of Aarhus, Denmark.
The present investigation has been carried out to evaluate the sensitivity of the inner ear to irradiation. Cochlear function was tested in a cohort of 22 patients before and 7-84 months after receiving external irradiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The pre-irradiation sensori-neural hearing threshold at 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz was used as a baseline for the individual patient, and the observed sensori-neural hearing loss (SNHL) was calculated as the difference between pre- and post-irradiation values. The pre-irradiation hearing level or patient age was not correlated with the actual SNHL. In contrast, there was a significant correlation between the total radiation dose to the inner ear and the observed hearing impairment. SNHL was most pronounced in the high frequencies, with values up to 35 dB (4000 Hz) and 25 dB (2000 Hz) in some patients. The latent period for the complication appeared to be 12 months or more. The deleterious effect of irradiation on the hearing should be kept in mind both in treatment planning and in the follow-up after radiotherapy.
UI - 8892450
AU - Kwong DL; Wei WI; Sham JS; Ho WK; Yuen PW; Chua DT; Au DK; Wu PM; Choy
TI - DT Sensorineural hearing loss in patients treated for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a prospective study of the effect of radiation and cisplatin treatment.
SO - Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1996 Sep 1;36(2):281-9
AD - Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University of Hong Kong, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong.
PURPOSE: The pattern of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) after primary treatment for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) was studied, and the effect of cisplatin, radiotherapy does, and fractionation were evaluated. METHODS AND MATERIALS: One hundred thirty-two patients, 227 ears, and 1100 audiogram reports were analyzed. Radiotherapy dose ranged from 59.5 to 76.5 Gy. Fifty-two patients received preirradiation cisplatin, total dose 100-185 mg/m(2). Serial postirradiation bone conduction thresholds at 0.5 kHz, 1 kHz, 2 kHz, and 4 kHz were compared with pretreatment thresholds at respective frequencies. Increase of at least 15 dB was considered as significant and was further grouped as transient or persistent SNHL. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify predicting factors for persistent SNHL. RESULTS: At median follow-up of 30 months, 24.2% of ears developed persistent SNHL. High frequency was more affected than low frequencies, 22 vs. 5.3%. Males were more affected than females, 29.4 vs. 15.5%, p = 0.0132. Incidence of persistent SNHL increased with age, with 0, 17.2, and 37.4% of patients aged under 30, between 30-50 and over 50 affected, respectively, p = 0.0001. High incidence was found in patient with postirradiation serous otitis media (SOM), 46.9%. Chemotherapy with cisplatin and radiation dose or fractionation had no significant effect. Multivariate analysis confirmed age, sex, and postirradiation SOM as significant prognostic factors for persistent SNHL. CONCLUSIONS: Transient and persistent SNHL occurred after radiotherapy, more commonly affecting high frequency. A low dose of preirradiation cisplatin did not increase the risk. A dose fractionation effect of radiotherapy was not confirmed in this study.
UI - 8892478
AU - Grau C; Overgaard J
TI - Postirradiation sensorineural hearing loss: a common but ignored late radiation complication.
SO - Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1996 Sep 1;36(2):515-7
UI - 12015028
AU - Han W; Li H; Xie L; Xu L; Zhang L; Yao K
TI - [Plerosis of cDNA array of normal human nasopharyngeal tissue and nasopharyngeal carcinoma]
SO - Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 2002 Mar;24(2):114-7
AD - Laboratory of Cancerous Change and Invasion, Xiangya Medical College, Central South University, Changsha 410078, China.
OBJECTIVE: To compare gene expression gene profile of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tissue with that of normal nasopharyngeal tissues by cDNA array and to discuss possible functions of DNA repair-related genes in NPC tissue. METHODS: After hybridization of atlas human cancer cDNA expression array 7742 - 1, atlas hybridization results were analyzed by Atlas Image 1.01 a software package. Using RT-PCR was used to confirm the results. RESULTS: Of 63 differentially expressed genes in quadrangle C including DNA damage response, repair & recombination-related genes, 6 DNA repair-related genes were up-regulated, 12 were down-regulated. CONCLUSION: DNA repair-related genes may be involved in patho-physiological process of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
UI - 12015036
AU - Hu W; Yu M; Long S; Huang S; Gu M; Zhou L; Wu D
TI - [Change in visual evoked potential by radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma]
SO - Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 2002 Mar;24(2):147-50
AD - Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510060, China.
OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma on visual evoked potential (VEP). METHODS: VEP of 63 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were tested before, at the end of, half a year, one year, 2 years and 3 years after their radiotherapy. RESULTS: Within the male group, one year after radiotherapy, the latency of VEP was significantly delayed than that before and at the end of radiotherapy, while the amplitude was decreased significantly. Two years after radiotherapy, the latency of VEP was significantly delayed more than that before radiotherapy. However there was no significant difference among VEP at the end of, half a year and 3 years after radiotherapy. Within the female group, 2 years after radiotherapy, the latency of VEP was significantly delayed than that before radiotherapy. Three years after radiotherapy, the latency of VEP was significantly delayed than that before, at the end of, half a year and one year after radiotherapy. There was no significant difference in VEP amplitudes before and after radiotherapy. CONCLUSION: Within the male group, the abnormal delay of VEP latency mostly happens one or two years after radiotherapy. Within the female group, the significant delay of VEP latency happens at the end of radiotherapy and lasts for 3 years, while the VEP amplitude does not change significantly during the 3 years after radiotherapy. The result indicates that the sustained radiation damage within the female visual nerve system starts at the end of radiotherapy, but to a lesser degree. It was shown that radiotherapy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma certainly damages the visual nerve system, though there is sex difference in the impairment.
UI - 12015044
AU - Xie C; Liang B; Lin H; Wu P
TI - [Influence of MRI on the T, N staging system of nasopharyngeal carcinoma]
SO - Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 2002 Mar;24(2):181-4
AD - Department of Medical Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou 510060, China.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of MRI on the T, N staging system, 5(th) edition, UICC and the 92 staging system, China by comparing CT and MRI of the nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). METHODS: From 1993 to Dec. 2000, fifty-six NPC patients proved by pathology underwent CT and MRI examination with Philip T5-II ultra-magnetic system (0.5T) and Elscient CT twin flash. Routine axial scans by CT and SE sequence with axial, sagittal and coronal scans by MRI from oral pharynx (lower border of second cervical vertebra) to supracellar cistern were done with enhancement (50/56). RESULTS: The tumor beyond the nasopharyngeal cavity was accurately defined because the pharyngobasilar fascia could be seen by MRI which appeared to be more sensitive than CT in revealing the invaded soft tissues surrounding the nasopharyngeal cavity, such as longus colli (14 by CT and 26 by MRI), tensor veli palatini and levator veli palatini (17 by CT and 42 by MRI), the skull base erosion (15 by CT and 23 by MRI) and enlargement of retropharyngeal lymph nodes (13 by CT and 24 by MRI). As a result, 28.6% (16/56) of NPC staging system, UICC and 33.9% (19/56) of the 92 staging system of China should undergo changes. CONCLUSION: MRI is able to reveal the invasion extent into the structures around the tumor mass more accurately than CT, with the pharyngobasilar fascia readily seen and the infiltration and/or destruction of the skull base more easily visualized by MRI than by CT. The impact of MRI upon the 92 staging system of China lies in the differentiation of direct infiltration by the tumor from the enlargement of the retropharyngeal lymph node and the early detection of skull base erosion. The Influence of MRI on the staging system of NPC is more pronounced than that of CT.
UI - 12160278
AU - Pukkila MJ; Kellokoski JK; Virtaniemi JA; Kumpulainen EJ; Johansson RT;
TI - Halonen PM; Kosunen AS; Nuutinen J; Kosma VM Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: relation to p53 expression, clinicopathological data, and survival.
SO - Laryngoscope 2002 Jun;112(6):1084-8
AD - Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Kuopio and Kuopio University Hospital, Finland.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and its relation to p53 expression, histologic differentiation, clinical data, and prognosis. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective survey. METHODS: Primary tumors for analyses were obtained from 118 patients diagnosed with SCC of the oropharynx or hypopharynx between 1975 and 1998 in eastern Finland. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to evaluate the expression of iNOS and p53. The expression pattern of iNOS was related to p53 expression, clinical data, and survival. RESULTS: High iNOS score was associated significantly with high nuclear p53 expression index (P = .006) and positive cytoplasmic p53 expression (P = .025). The score for iNOS expression was significantly lower in the largest (T4) tumors (P = .043). No association was seen between iNOS score and N or M class, tumor stage, or histologic differentiation. The score for iNOS expression was not related to overall survival. CONCLUSIONS: The expressions of iNOS and p53 seem to be inter-related in pharyngeal SCC, although the causality remains to be clarified. The expression of iNOS shows no prognostic value in pharyngeal SCC.
UI - 12185055
AU - Pickhardt PJ; Rohrmann CA Jr; Cossentino MJ
TI - Stomal metastases complicating percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy: CT findings and the argument for radiologic tube placement.
SO - AJR Am J Roentgenol 2002 Sep;179(3):735-9
AD - Department of Radiology, National Naval Medical Center, 8901 Wisconsin Ave., Bethesda, MD 20889-5600, USA.
OBJECTIVE: This article describes the CT appearance of metastatic implantation at the percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tract in patients with malignancy of the upper aerodigestive tract. Cumulative data from previous case reports are also considered for insight into causes of metastasis and the implications for gastrostomy placement in these patients. CONCLUSION: CT showed lobulated soft tissue involving the entire abdominal wall PEG tract in all proven cases. CT is an effective method for evaluation because the tumor burden lies predominately in the abdominal wall and not at the entry or exit site. The stomal implant is often the only site of metastatic disease at presentation. In general, CT findings of mildly increased soft tissue along the PEG tract are nonspecific, but a lobulated mass is highly suspicious for tumor implantation, especially if the one-sided thickness exceeds 1 cm. The preponderance of evidence from the existing literature points to direct tumor implantation during endoscopic placement as the likely cause (rather than hematogenous spread). This conclusion would support the alternative of radiologic tube placement in these patients.
UI - 12106649
AU - Cao J; Liu Y; Sun H; Cheng G; Pang X; Zhou Z
TI - Chromosomal aberrations, DNA strand breaks and gene mutations in nasopharyngeal cancer patients undergoing radiation therapy.
SO - Mutat Res 2002 Jul 25;504(1-2):85-90
AD - Hygiene Toxicology Department, Preventive Medicine College, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, PR China. email@example.com
Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is a common disease in the south part of China, and its incidence is increasing in the southwest of China in recent years. Radiation therapy is the main therapeutic method for NPC in China. In this study, genetic changes were assessed in randomly selected nine NPC patients receiving radiation therapy by different genotoxical screening methods, the cytokinesis-block micronucleus test (CB-MNT), the buccal mucosa cell micronucleus test (BMC-MNT), the undivided lymphocyte micronucleus test (UL-MNT), chromosomal aberration (CA) test, the comet assay and the hprt gene mutation test (HPRT). Patients were used as self-control before receiving radiation therapy. Apart from the UL-MNT, all the methods detected genetic damages in NPC patients, though with different sensitivities. CB-MNT is the best biological indicator for evaluating genetic damage induced by radiation therapy in NPC patients; followed by CA and HPRT, while the BMC-MNT is simplest method as a potential biological indicator.
UI - 12209886
AU - Wang L; Chen L; Zhu L; Rawle M; Nie S; Zhang J; Ping Z; Kangrong C;
TI - Jacob TJ Regulatory volume decrease is actively modulated during the cell cycle.
SO - J Cell Physiol 2002 Oct;193(1):110-9
AD - School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells, CNE-2Z, when swollen by 47% hypotonic solution, exhibited a regulatory volume decrease (RVD). The RVD was inhibited by extracellular applications of the chloride channel blockers tamoxifen (30 microM; 61% inhibition), 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB, 100 microM; 60% inhibition), and ATP (10 mM; 91% inhibition). The level and time constant of RVD varied greatly between cells. Most cells conducted an incomplete RVD, but a few had the ability to recover their volume completely. There was no obvious correlation between cell volume and RVD capacity. Flow cytometric analysis showed that highly synchronous cells were obtained by the mitotic shake-off technique and that the cells progressed through the cell cycle synchronously when incubated in culture medium. Combined application of DNA synthesis inhibitors, thymidine and hydroxyurea arrested cells at the G1/S boundary and 87% of the cells reached S phase 4 h after being released. RVD capacity changed significantly during the cell cycle progression in cells synchronized by shake-off technique. RVD capacity being at its highest in G1 phase and lowest in S phase. The RVD capacity in G1 (shake-off cells sampled after 4 h of incubation), S (obtained by chemical arrest), and M cells (selected under microscope) was 73, 33, and 58%, respectively, and the time constants were 435, 769, and 2,000 sec, respectively. We conclude that RVD capacity is actively modulated in the cell cycle and RVD may play an important role in cell cycle progress. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
UI - 11865813
AU - Foo KF; Tan EH; Leong SS; Wee JT; Tan T; Fong KW; Koh L; Tai BC; Lian
TI - LG; Machin D Gemcitabine in metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma of the undifferentiated type.
SO - Ann Oncol 2002 Jan;13(1):150-6
AD - Department of Medical Oncology, National Cancer Centre, Singapore, Singapore.
BACKGROUND: We conducted two parallel phase II trials in chemonaive and previously treated patients with metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) to evaluate the tumour response, progression-free and overall survival, and toxicity of gemcitabine. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Gemcitabine 1250 mg/m2 was given on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle. Patients with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status <2, adequate renal, hepatic and bone marrow function, and radiologically measurable NPC were eligible. RESULTS: Twenty-five chemonaive and 27 previously treated patients were enrolled. The overall response rate was 28% [95% confidence interval (CI) 14% to 48%] for the chemonaive and 48% (95% CI 31% to 66%) for previously treated patients. Toxicities greater than or equal to grade 3 occurred in 15 (60%) chemonaive and 13 (48%) previously treated patients. Neutropenia was uncommon in chemonaive patients, but occurred in 37% of previously treated patients. The median time to progression was 3.6 months (range 0.9-7.9) for chemonaive and 5.1 months (0.9-13.1) for previously treated patients. Median overall survival time was 7.2 months (1.4-15.6) and 10.5 months (2.4-15.0) for chemonaive and previously treated patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Gemcitabine has moderate activity in NPC with minimal toxicity, and is also an effective salvage agent for patients who have failed or progressed after treatment with other agents.
UI - 12142973
AU - Hietschold V; Kittner T; Appold S; Abolmaali N; Laniado M
TI - MR perfusion measurement of contrast uptaking lesions: consideration of T2* shortening due to interstitial contrast agent.
SO - Rofo Fortschr Geb Rontgenstr Neuen Bildgeb Verfahr 2002 Aug;174(8):973-8
AD - Institut und Poliklinik fur Radiologische Diagnostik, Universitatsklinikum Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden, Germany. Volker.Hietschold@mailbox.TU-Dresden.de
AIM: In MR perfusion measurements of contrast uptaking lesions, time intensity curves are hampered by T 1 shortening as well as by the change of T 2 * due to interstitial contrast material (CM). Using double echo sequences, the influence of T 1 can be mathematically eliminated. For correction of the T 2 * influence an empirical algorithm using time-intensity-curves exclusively measured in the suspected lesion is proposed. METHODS: The interstitial CM concentration is assumed to be proportional to the change of the intensity for T E = 0 or to the change of the relaxation rate DeltaR 1 respectively. The intravascular CM concentration is estimated from DeltaR 2 *. It is adjusted to zero for a time point sufficiently late after the bolus injection by subtraction of the interstitial concentration. This method was applied to double echo FLASH measurements on 15 pharyngeal tumors. RESULTS: The proposed correction transforms the time dependence of the estimated intravascular CM concentration into a plausible course. CONCLUSION: Double echo perfusion measurements can be corrected for the interstitial CM induced T 2 * shortening without additional measurements with proneness to errors. This does not necessarily improve the diagnostic value, since possibly "implied multivariate aspects" of uncorrected parameters (here: contrast uptake of the lesion is related to tumor neoangiogenesis as well) are eliminated.
UI - 11780335
AU - Yin L; Liao W; Deng X; Tang M; Gu H; Li X; Yi W; Cao Y
TI - LMP1 activates NF-kappa B via degradation of I kappa B alpha in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.
SO - Chin Med J (Engl) 2001 Jul;114(7):718-22
AD - Cancer Research Institute, Hunan Medical University, Changsha 410078, China.
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the mechanisms by which Epstein-Barr virus-encoded latent membrane protein 1 activates NF-kappa B in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. METHODS: A tetracycline-regulated LMP1-expressing nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line, Tet-on-LMP1-HNE2, was used as the cell model. The kinetics of the expression of proteins, including LMP1, I kappa B alpha and I kappa B beta, was analyzed by Western blotting. The subcellular localization of NF-kappa B (p65) was detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay. The NF-kappa B transactivity was studied by transient transfection and reporter gene assay. RESULTS: I kappa B alpha was phosphorylated and degraded after the inducible expression of LMP1, although the total protein levels remained stable. The steady-state level of total I kappa B beta protein may have resulted from the initiation of an autoregulation loop after the activation of NF-kappa B. No change in the I kappa B beta level was detected. NF-kappa B (p65) was translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus following degradation of I kappa B alpha. After the introduction of the dominant-negative mutant of I kappa B alpha (Del 71) into Tet-on-LMP1-HNE2 cells, both nuclear translocation and transactivation of NF-kappa B induced by LMP1 was significantly inhibited. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells, LMP1 activated NF-kappa B via phosphorylation and degradation of I kappa B alpha, but not I kappa B beta. The dominant-negative mutant of I kappa B alpha (Del 71) could completely inhibit both the nuclear translocation and transactivation of NF-kappa B induced by LMP1.
UI - 12122716
AU - Mariette C; Fabre S; Balon JM; Patenotre P; Chevalier D; Triboulet JP
TI - [Reconstruction after total circular pharyngolaryngectomy: comparison between gastric interposition and free jejunal flap]
SO - Ann Chir 2002 Jun;127(6):431-8
AD - Service de chirurgie digestive et generale, hopital Claude-Huriez, CHRU place de Verdun, 59037 Lille, France.
AIM OF THE STUDY: To elucidate hospital mortality, morbidity and actuarial survival rates of patients with carcinoma of the hypopharynx and cervical oesophagus and to identify the technique of choice for reconstruction after pharyngolaryngectomy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed the records of 209 patients who underwent total patients had advanced cancer: hypopharyngeal in 131 cases and cervical oesophageal in 78 cases. Follow-up was complete for all patients. Chi 2 and log rank tests were used, with a limit of significance of 5%. RESULTS: The postoperative mortality and morbidity rates were 4.8% and 38.3%, respectively. Alimentary continuity was achieved using the stomach (127 patients), colon (5 patients), or free jejunal autograft (77 patients). The 1-year and 5-year survival rates were 62% and 24%, respectively. There was no significant difference with regard to the survival between gastric transposition and free jejunal autograft, but there were fewer complications in the gastric pull-up group with regard to the respiratory complications (33% vs 47.0%, p < 0.05), local recurrences (15.8% vs 33.8%, p = 0.004) and survival without dysphagia (76% vs 89%, p < 10(-5)). CONCLUSION: Surgical ablation is a viable option for advanced hypopharyngeal and cervical oesophageal neoplasms, and stomach interposition is the preferred method of reconstruction.
UI - 12196925
AU - Ree HJ; Kikuchi M; Lee SS; Ohshima K; Yang WI; Ko YH; Cho EY; Rhee JC
TI - Focal follicular features in tonsillar diffuse large B-cell lymphomas: follicular lymphoma with diffuse areas or follicular colonization.
SO - Hum Pathol 2002 Jul;33(7):732-40
AD - Department of Diagnostic Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea.
Focal follicular features in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) are bound to raise the question of follicular lymphoma (FL) with diffuse areas, because the diagnosis of FL is based on the presence of follicular areas, even though focal. We report 7 cases of primary tonsillar DLBCLs with focal follicular features that presented with morphologic, immunohistochemical, and biological features distinct from those of FL. Histologically, these tumors were characterized by involvement of pericryptal follicles with adjacent dominant diffuse areas. Monomorphous large tumor cells were evenly spaced with abundant, often clear cytoplasm, and blastoid nuclei often with a delicate nuclear membrane. Importantly, residual germinal centers (GCs) were present in the form of either an intrafollicular GC remnant or an isolated GC in the midst of diffuse tumor. An extrafollicular and/or parafollicular growth pattern was also observed. Bcl-6 staining revealed a predominantly sporadic occurrence of Bcl-6(+) cells, comprising <50% of tumor cells, and none displayed diffusely dense collections (>75%) of Bcl-6(+) tumor cells characteristic of the GC or FL. Staining for CD10 was negative in 6 cases. Five of 7 patients were younger than 60, the median age of other patients with primary tonsillar DLBCL. No extratonsillar involvement was seen at 18 months after diagnosis. After chemotherapy or radiotherapy, complete remission was achieved with ease in all patients, but 2 patients who were treated with chemotherapy alone relapsed at 24 and 30 months. In conclusion, tonsillar DLBCL includes a small (10%) but distinct subgroup that warrants distinction from FL with predominant diffuse areas or de novo DLBCL. It appears that the focal follicular features in tonsillar DLBCL likely represent follicular colonization of marginal zone B-cell lymphoma, probably high-grade, if the possibility of FL is excluded. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
UI - 12098046
AU - Schilling MK; Eichenberger M; Maurer CA; Greiner R; Zbaren P; Buchler MW
TI - Long-term survival of patients with stage IV hypopharyngeal cancer: impact of fundus rotation gastroplasty.
SO - World J Surg 2002 May;26(5):561-5
AD - Department of Visceral and Transplant Surgery, University of Bern, Inselspital, 3010 Bern, Switzerland. firstname.lastname@example.org
Stage IV circular hypopharyngeal cancer is a disease with poor long-term survival, and the only means of cure-surgery-is associated with high morbidity. All patients admitted with circular hypopharyngeal cancer and extension to the esophagus were enrolled in a multidisciplinary treatment protocol, including circular laryngopharyngoesophagectomy with tracheostomy, neck dissection, and pull-up of a fundus rotation gastric tube that was anastomosed to the oropharynx. Five weeks postoperatively high-dose radiotherapy (60 Gy) was given to the cervical region. Altogether, 18 qualifying patients were explored cervically, were found to have resectable lesions (i.e., without carotid artery infiltration), and were included in the prot
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