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Ultima Vez Modificado: 1 de julio del 2002
UI - 11705191
AU - Dias EP; Spyrides KS; Silva Junior AS; Rocha ML; da Fonseca EC
TI - [Oral hairy leukoplakia: histopathologic features of subclinical stage]
SO - Pesqui Odontol Bras 2001 Apr-Jun;15(2):104-11
AD - Departamento de Patologia da Universidade Federal Fluminense.
Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is one of the most common oral manifestations of AIDS, with diagnostic and prognostic value. OHL is associated to the Epstein-Barr virus and presents clinical and histological defined characteristics. There have already been reports about a subclinical stage of OHL, although they lacked histopathologic characterization. The present study had the aim to describe the histopathological characteristics of subclinical hairy leukoplakia, as well as to carry out a comparative analysis between clinical and subclinical OHL. For that, 11 cases were analyzed--5 biopsies from patients who presented with the lesion and 6 samples from the borders of tongues obtained in necropsies. The histopathological findings in subclinical OHL were: absence of parakeratosis and papillomatosis, mild acanthosis, ballooning cells and nuclear alterations. In situ hybridization and immunostaining were positive for EBV in the nuclear alterations identified in the histopathological analysis. Based on the identification of EBV in the nuclear alterations, it was possible to conclude that subclinical OHL, similarly to the clinical lesion, presents histopathological features that are specific and sufficient to establish the definitive diagnosis, regardless of the identification of the virus.
UI - 12037022
AU - Higa M; Kinjo T; Kamiyama K; Iwamasa T; Hamada T; Iyama K
TI - Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) subtype in EBV related oral squamous cell carcinoma in Okinawa, a subtropical island in southern Japan, compared with Kitakyushu and Kumamoto in mainland Japan.
SO - J Clin Pathol 2002 Jun;55(6):414-23
AD - Department of Pathology, Ryukyu University School of Medicine, 207 Uehara, Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0215, Japan. email@example.com
AIM: In Okinawa, a subtropical island located between the East China Sea and Pacific Ocean, 2000 km south of mainland Japan, the incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma is 1.5 times higher than that seen in mainland Japan, and a large number of these patients have been reported to be infected with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). This study aimed to gain a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this malignancy in this area by carrying out genomic analysis of EBV. METHODS: Fifty four patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma reported from 1997 to 1999 in Okinawa were compared with 21 and 20 patients from Kitakyushu and Kumamoto in Kyushu, mainland Japan, respectively. Diagnosis was confirmed by conventional histological examination of paraffin wax sections. EBV was detected by non-isotopic in situ hybridisation (NISH) and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (Bam HI-F, EBV nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2), and latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) regions). Sequence analysis of the PCR products was also carried out. RESULTS: In Okinawa, 25 patients were found to be infected with EBV type A by analysing the 3' sequence divergence of the EBNA2 genes. Six patients were positive for EBV type B, and eight for both type A and B. Therefore, type A virus infection was demonstrated in 33 of 54 patients, and type B in 14 of 54. In total, 39 of 54 patients were infected with EBV. However, the "f" variant was shown in only one patient, who was also infected with type A virus. In contrast, 97.0% of EBV type A infected patients showed a 30 bp deletion of the LMP-1 gene, but those infected with EBV type B did not. Sequence analysis of the type A virus EBNA2 gene revealed slight variations of the sequence (mutations)-(48991)G-->T and (48998)C-->A-in 18 of 33 cases compared with the B95-8 strain, and in 14 cases, in addition to these, a further mutation of (48917)T-->C was demonstrated; in the single remaining case, only one mutation at (49137)A-->G was detected. The mutations at 48991 (G-->T), and 49137 (A-->G) are associated with amino acid changes Arg-->Met and Thr-->Ala, respectively. In contrast, no mutation was seen in the EBNA2 DNA from the 14 cases of type B virus when compared with that of the Jijoye strain. In Kitakyushu and Kumamoto, only 10 of 41 patients (six in Kitakyushu and four in Kumamoto) were infected with EBV. Among them, nine patients were infected with type A virus, and only one patient from Kitakyushu was infected with type B virus. The (48991)G-->T and (48998)C-->A mutations of the EBNA2 region were demonstrated in type A virus, but the (48917)T-->C and (49137)A-->G mutations were not when compared with the B95-8 strain. In the case of type B virus no mutation was noted. A 30 bp deletion was found in these nine cases of type A, but not in type B. The sequence analysis of EBV type A in Okinawa, Kitakyushu, and Kumamoto showed slight variations when compared with B95-8, but EBV type B LMP-1 did not when compared with the Jijoye strains. CONCLUSION: In Okinawa, EBV infection was frequently demonstrated in oral squamous cell carcinoma (p < 0.001). However, in mainland Japan there was no significant correlation between EBV and oral squamous cell carcinoma. In Okinawa, EBV type B infection is approximately 10 times more common than in the mainland. However, in these areas-Okinawa, Kitakyushu, and Kumamoto-the frequency of the "f " variant was very low, whereas a high incidence of a 30 bp deletion of LMP-1 was noted. The number of EBV (including type A and/or B) infected oral squamous cell carcinomas in Okinawa was about three times higher than that seen in the mainland, although the frequency of oral squamous carcinoma was only 1.5 times higher than that seen in the mainland. A high prevalence of type B virus infection and slight differences in the EBNA2 gene sequence in the type A virus might influence the frequency of this carcinoma in Okinawa.
UI - 11998516
AU - Herranz Gonzalez-Botas J; Vazquez Barro C; Lopez Amado M; Martinez Moran
TI - A; Chao Vieites J [Factors affecting local and regional control and survival of carcinomas of the tongue and floor of mouth]
SO - Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp 2002 Jan;53(1):32-8
AD - Servicio de Otorrinolaringologia, Hospital Juan Canalejo, La Coruna.
A retrospective study of 142 patients that had previous surgery for carcinoma of the tongue or floor of mouth looking into the factors that affect significantly the evolution of our patients and in which circumstances we could benefit from new therapeutic techniques. Cause specific survival at 3 and 5 years was 63.4% and 56.9% respectively. Recurrences were found locally in 32 patients (22.5%), regional in 32 (22.5%) and metastasis in 11 (7.4%). T staging had no did impact on local recurrence, but the presence of positive margins (p = 0.0323). Regional control for N0/N1 was 85% (90/106) versus 55.5% (20/36) for N2/N3 (p = 0.001). Regional control by N staging was 84.5% (73/86) for N0, 85% (17/20) for N1, 57% (30/35) for N2 and 0% for N3 (0/1). Both, N staging and number of positive nodes had a significant impact in specific survival. Positive margins and the presence of positive nodes have the greatest impact on survival and regional control. Adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy did not increase survival, but not prospective random selection was performed. To evaluate this.
UI - 11883962
AU - Rogers SN; Lowe D; Patel M; Brown JS; Vaughan ED
TI - Clinical function after primary surgery for oral and oropharyngeal cancer: an 11-item examination.
SO - Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2002 Feb;40(1):1-10
AD - Regional Maxillofacial Unit, University Hospital Aintree, Aintree Trust, Liverpool, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
The aim of this study was to record clinical function using an 11-item clinical examination and identify the main postoperative functional deficits.Of 132 consecutive patients undergoing surgery for previously in the study. An 11-domain clinical examination was made on the day before operation, and at 6 and 12 months afterwards. This examination assessed lip competence, tongue movement, oral mucosa, dental state, mouth opening, speech, drooling, diet, appearance, oral sensation and shoulder movement.Preoperatively there were deficits in natural dentition, consistency of diet and tongue protrusion. Postoperatively functional scores fell particularly for tongue movements, mouth opening, mucosa, dentition, speech, diet, appearance, lip sensation and tongue sensation. At 1 year, dental status, sensation and oral mucosa were particularly defective. Patients with large tumours, free tissue transfer, or adjuvant radiotherapy had the worst levels of function.A simple clinical examination provides a rapid assessment of function that can be used in conjunction with validated questionnaires to provide a more comprehensive evaluation of outcome. Copyright 2002 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.
UI - 11883963
AU - Rogers SN; Lowe D; Fisher SE; Brown JS; Vaughan ED
TI - Health-related quality of life and clinical function after primary surgery for oral cancer.
SO - Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2002 Feb;40(1):11-8
AD - Regional Maxillofacial Unit, University Hospital Aintree, Aintree Trust, Liverpool, UK. email@example.com
Clinical function and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are both important outcome parameters following surgery for oral and oropharyngeal cancer. The aim of this project was to explore the relationship between an 11-point clinical examination and HRQoL. Of 132 consecutive patients undergoing surgery for previously untreated disease The University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire (UW-QoL) was completed by each patient on the day before operation and 6 and 12 months later. On each occasion the first author made an 11-point clinical examination. The main predictors of cumulative UW-QoL scores were tumour size, clinical functional score and type of operation. The trend was for a fall from preoperative levels at 6 months and then for a slight improvement at 1 year. The differential in respect of baseline function was present at all three time points in each patient group. This suggests that functional deficits at presentation persist following treatment. Copyright 2002 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.
UI - 11883967
AU - Gallagher J; Webb A; Ilankovan V
TI - Gastro-omental free flaps in oral and oropharyngeal reconstruction:surgical anatomy, complications, outcomes.
SO - Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2002 Feb;40(1):32-6
AD - Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Poole Hospital, Poole, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
Free gastro-omental flaps can be used to reconstruct defects in the oral cavity after ablative cancer surgery. The omentum can provide as much bulk as required. The generous gastro-omental pedicle allows mobility. The gastric mucosal lining has the advantage that it produces mucus, does not carry hair follicles and is not prone to troublesome desquamation. This paper reviews the surgical anatomy of free gastro-omental flaps and presents a series of eight cases in which these flaps were used for oral and oropharyngeal reconstruction. Copyright 2002 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.
UI - 11895916
AU - Uzawa K; Ono K; Suzuki H; Tanaka C; Yakushiji T; Yamamoto N; Yokoe H;
TI - Tanzawa H High prevalence of decreased expression of KAI1 metastasis suppressor in human oral carcinogenesis.
SO - Clin Cancer Res 2002 Mar;8(3):828-35
AD - Department of Clinical Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670, Japan.
PURPOSE: KAI1 was originally identified in prostate cancer as a metastasis suppressor gene. Recent studies have shown a frequent down-regulation of KAI1 expression in many tumor types, whereas mutation or hypermethylation of the gene is infrequent. The aim of the present study was to examine whether loss of KAI1 expression that might be caused by genetic or epigenetic alterations could contribute to oral carcinogenesis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN : We analyzed mutational and methylation status of the KAI1 gene and both the mRNA and protein level in a series of oral tumors [28 precancerous lesions, 101 primary oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs), and 30 metastatic OSCCs] and OSCC-derived cell lines. We also examined p53 protein expression, which has been reported to be a candidate activator for the KAI1 gene. RESULTS: With the exception of three microsatellite instabilities in the KAI1 gene, we found no mutations in the coding sequence of the KAI1 gene, no loss of heterozygosity, and no hypermethylation of the KAI1 promoter region in all samples investigated. By immunohistochemistry, however, high frequencies of KAI1 down-regulation were evident not only in the metastatic OSCCs [29 of 30 (97%)] but also in the primary OSCCs [83 of 101 (82%)] and in the precancerous lesions [13 of 28 (46%)]. There was a significant relationship between down-regulation of KAI1 protein expression and primary tumors associated with lymph node metastases (P = 0.0115), whereas there was no statistical correlation between p53 status and KAI1 expression. Taken together, reverse transcription-PCR data were consistent with the protein expression status in 16 patients from whom mRNA was available. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that whereas loss of KAI1 protein expression is associated with primary tumors with lymph node metastases, the down-regulation of KAI1 is an early event in the progression of human oral cancer. The down-regulation of KAI1 is not associated with either mutation, allelic loss, methylation of the promoter, or p53 regulation.
UI - 11933896
AU - Kalyanyama BM; Matee MI; Vuhahula E
TI - Oral tumours in Tanzanian children based on biopsy materials examined over a 15-year period from 1982 to 1997.
SO - Int Dent J 2002 Feb;52(1):10-4
AD - Department of Oral Surgery & Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
AIM: To provide information on the types and distribution of oral tumours and tumour-like lesions occurring in a Tanzanian child population aged 0-16 years. DESIGN: Retrospective study of biopsy results from hospital records from 1982-1997. SETTING: Department of Histopathology, the Muhimbili Medical Centre (MMC) in Dar es Salaam. INTERVENTION/ METHODS: A total of 158 biopsy results, from 75 girls and 83 boys, were retrieved and studied. RESULTS: Malignant tumours were the most frequent (43.0%) followed by benign tumours (30.4%) and tumour-like lesions (26.6%). Burkitt's lymphoma was the most frequent malignant tumour accounting for 88.2% of all malignancies followed by squamous cell carcinoma (4.4%) and oral Kaposi's sarcoma (2.9%). Fibroma, papilloma and haemangioma were the most frequent benign tumours constituting 27.1%, 14.6% and 12.5%, respectively. Odontogenic cysts were the most frequent tumour-like lesions (28.6%) followed by fibrous dysplasia (19%) and giant cell granuloma (16.7%). CONCLUSION: The six most common oral lesions were Burkitt's lymphoma, fibroma, odontogenic cysts, fibrous dysplasia, papilloma and giant cell granuloma.
UI - 12015658
AU - Reinshagen K; Wessel LM; Roth H; Waag KL
TI - Congenital epulis: a rare diagnosis in paediatric surgery.
SO - Eur J Pediatr Surg 2002 Apr;12(2):124-6
AD - Abteilung fur Kinderchirurgie, Chirurgische Klinik der Ruprecht-Karls-Universitat Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany. Konrad_Reinshagen@med.uni-heidelberg.de
Congenital epulis of the newborn is a rare tumour which is usually benign. The first description of a case is attributed to Neumann in 1871. The word "epulis" is derived from Greek and means "on the gum" or "gum boil". Epulis is also known as a congenital gingival granular cell tumour because of its histological features. Since 1871, 216 cases have been reported. Female babies are affected 8-10 times more often than males. Epulis is located on the maxillary ridge twice as often as on the mandible, mostly as single tumours but rarely as multiple tumours. Macroscopically, epulis is a pedunculated tumour with a smooth or lobulated surface. The basis of the tumour is the alveolar mucosa. The size varies from a few millimetres to 9 cm in diameter. After birth, the tumour normally does not increase in size. Microscopic examination shows a central mass of granular cells. This mass is surrounded by a stratified squamous mucosa. The histogenesis of the tumour is unknown. Spontaneous regression of congenital epulis has been reported in four cases. However, surgical excision is generally indicated due to interference with feeding or respiration. Recurrence of the tumour after surgery has not been reported yet.
UI - 11590079
AU - Femiano F; Scully C; Laino G; Battista G
TI - Benign fibrous histiocytoma (BHF) of the cheek: CD 68-KP1 positivity.
SO - Oral Oncol 2001 Dec;37(8):673-5
AD - Stomatology Clinic. II, University of Medicine and Surgery, Napoli, Italy. email@example.com
We present a case of fibrous histiocytoma of the cheek in a 32-year-old male with no evidence of any regional invasion or distant metastasis. Pathologic analysis and diagnosis of these lesions is often challenging, and usually based on a combination of light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. In this study the diagnosis was confirmed using immunostaining with the antibody CD 68-KP1 that is positive in any lesion containing lysosomal granules or phagolysosomes.
UI - 11830977
AU - Roodenburg JL; Vermey A; Nauta JM
TI - [Prevention of oral cancer]
SO - Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd 1994 May;101(5):200-3
AD - Afdeling Mondziekten, Kaakchirurgie en Bijzondere Tandheelkunde, Academisch Ziekenhuis Groningen, postbus 30.001, 9700 RB Groningen.
Etiology control is the most important primary prevention of oral cancer. The use of tobacco and alcohol increases the risk of a squamous cell carcinoma of the oral mucosa. The dentist can play an important role in the secondary prevention or screening for premalignant lesions, asymptomatic malignancies and second primary tumours of the oral cavity. Because of their age, edentulous patients run a high risk of oral cancer. Therefore, a regular oral check-up of these patients should be recommended.
UI - 11831177
AU - van der Tol IG; Jovanovic A; Schulten EA; Kostense PJ; de Vries N; Snow
TI - GB; van der Waal I [Second primary tumors following treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity]
SO - Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd 1994 Oct;101(10):403-5
AD - Afdeling Mondziekten en Kaakchirurgie en Orale Pathologie, Academisch Ziekenuis Vrije Universiteit/Academisch Centrum voor Tandheelkunde Amsterdam (ACTA).
In the hospital of the Free University in Amsterdam (the Netherlands) 727 patients with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and lip have been studied for the incidence of second primary tumors occurring in the respiratory and upper digestive tract. Out of the 727 patients, 74 (10.2%) developed a second primary tumor in these tracts. The incidence of second primary tumors was expressed per 1.000 person-years of follow-up; 28 second primary tumors per 1.000 person-years of follow-up were seen in the respiratory and upper digestive tract. The patients ran the risk of developing a second primary tumor at a steady rate of approximately 2.8% per year during at least ten years. Furthermore, an increasing incidence of second primary tumors could be observed in case of increasing use of tobacco.
UI - 11896826
AU - Yang J; Lam EW; Hammad HM; Oberley TD; Oberley LW
TI - Antioxidant enzyme levels in oral squamous cell carcinoma and normal human oral epithelium.
SO - J Oral Pathol Med 2002 Feb;31(2):71-7
AD - Department of Oral Medicine, Temple University School of Dentistry, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND: The antioxidant enzymes (manganese- and copper-zinc-containing superoxide dismutases, catalase and glutathione peroxidase) limit cell injury induced by reactive oxygen species. The purpose of the study was to determine whether human oral squamous cell carcinomas have altered antioxidant enzyme levels. This study is the first to undertake this task in human oral mucosa and squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: Semiquantitative immunohistochemistry was used to examine 26 archived oral squamous cell carcinoma biopsies. Fourteen well-differentiated and 12 poorly differentiated tumors were examined, as were 12 specimens of oral mucosa. All sections were reviewed by two oral and maxillofacial pathologists, and image analysis of the immunostained sections was performed using NIH Image. Antioxidant enzyme staining intensities were compared in the different groups by Duncan's multiple range test. RESULTS: In general, mucosal basal cells displayed lower antioxidant enzyme levels than spinous cells, and primary tumor cells displayed lower antioxidant enzyme staining intensities than did their normal cell counterparts. Moreover, poorly differentiated tumor cells showed lower antioxidant enzyme staining intensities than well-differentiated tumor cells. Manganese-containing superoxide dismutase staining intensities were, however, higher in well-differentiated oral squamous cell carcinomas than their normal cells of origin. CONCLUSIONS: Detection of antioxidant enzymes may be a useful future marker in the molecular diagnosis of the oral cancer. Moreover, it may be possible to not only monitor the effectiveness of chemopreventive and therapeutic strategies in oral cancer using these enzymes, but to monitor tumor recurrence.
UI - 11896827
AU - de Sousa SO; Mesquita RA; Pinto DS Jr; Gutkind S
TI - Immunolocalization of c-Fos and c-Jun in human oral mucosa and in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
SO - J Oral Pathol Med 2002 Feb;31(2):78-81
AD - Department of Oral Pathology, University of Sao Paulo, School of Dentistry, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
BACKGROUND: Studies have addressed the relevance of c-Jun and c-Fos proteins in cancer development. In the present study, the expression of c-Jun and c-Fos, the major components of transcription factor activator protein (AP1), were evaluated to determine possible alterations to these factors in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). METHODS: Fifteen cases of normal oral mucosa and 20 cases of OSCC were retrieved from the Archives of the Surgical Pathology Service at the University of Sao Paulo. The samples of normal oral mucosa or OSCC originated from different oral mucosal sites. Tissues were submitted for immunohistochemical analysis to detect c-Jun and c-Fos proteins. The OSCC was classified as well, intermediate or poorly differentiated. RESULTS: The results showed that both c-Jun and c-Fos are expressed in normal oral mucosa and in OSCC. In normal mucosa, immunoreactivity for c-Jun was detected in the cytoplasm of the upper basal layers, while in OSCC, c-Jun was detected in the nuclei of the cells. C-Fos expression was observed in the nuclei of cells, both in normal mucosa and in OSCC, but its expression varied according to the cell layer in normal mucosa, and the differentiation of OSCC. CONCLUSIONS: The nuclear expression of c-Jun in OSCC, in contrast to its cytoplasmic expression in normal oral mucosa, indicates that c-Jun may have a role in the development of oral cancer. In contrast, the absence of both c-Jun and c-Fos in poorly differentiated carcinoma might be useful in understanding the cell cycle events important in uncontrolled cell growth.
UI - 12092562
AU - von Arx T; Koch S; Hardt N
TI - [Lesions of the mouth mucosa. An anamnestic and clinical study of 100 consecutive patients with mucosal lesions]
SO - Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed 2002;112(4):326-9
AD - Klinik fur Oralchirurgie und Stomatologie, Universitat Bern
The present study evaluates and analyzes anamnestic and clinical findings of 100 consecutively referred patients with oral mucosal lesions. The mean age of the cohort was 50.5 years (range 8-91 years) with a female rate of 60 percent. A total of 9 malignant neoplasia were found among the 100 mucosal lesions, including 7 squamous cell carcinomas and 2 mucoepidermoid carcinomas. In addition, 11 cases presented with leukoplakia and 4 cases with lichen planus, both recognized as possible precancerous conditions. These figures support the essential role of the dentist with respect to initial diagnosis and prevention of oral cancer. In addition, stomatologic follow-up examinations are recommended to be performed by each and every general practitioner. In the near future, the dentist will assess oral mucosal lesions more frequently due to the increasing number of elderly patients and to the fact that elderly people present with more lesions compared to younger patients. consistent to literature data, patients with leukoplasia and squamous cell carcinoma had the highest rates of tobacco and alcohol consumption. Therefore, the dentist may also become active in giving preventive information to the patient. the results of the present study showed, that--by employing a standardized examination--a correct clinical diagnosis was identical to the final diagnosis established by laboratory techniques.
UI - 12010347
AU - Bongiorno MR; Arico M
TI - Primary malignant melanoma of the oral cavity: case report.
SO - Int J Dermatol 2002 Mar;41(3):178-81
AD - Department of Dermatology, University of Palermo, Via del Vespro 131, 90123 Palermo, Italy. ISTDERM@UNIPA.IT
An 80-year-old-female patient had a pigmented lesion on: the hard palate, the soft palate, the alveolar mucosa and the vestibular mucosa of the maxillary gingiva. Pigmented macules and patches had been persistent and asymptomatic for many years (Fig. 1). The lesion exhibited irregularities of pigmentation, border and surface contour. About 1 year later the patient had noticed an extension of the pigmented macules and plaques; there was also the appearance of nodules of the maxillary gingiva accompanied by swelling. Loosening of teeth as a result of extensive destruction of bone was further noted (Fig. 2). The histological examination showed a downward streaming in the dermis of the tumor cells and a disintegration and ulceration of the epidermis (Fig. 3). An increased number of large round or polygonal cells resembling atypical epithelioid cells were found on the submucosa. The atypical cells had enlarged, pleomorphic nuclei with prominent and sometimes multiple nucleoli. Mitoses were observed at various tissue levels (Fig. 4). Abundant pigmented melanin was present in the tumor cells (Fig. 5). Many cells had fine, dusty melanin particles. The tumor cells showed great variations in size. Immunohistochemical staining, with S100 protein and HMB45 antibodies, stained many of the spindleshaped cells, indicating that they were melanocytic cells. An inflammatory infiltrate of lymphocytes was seen in a band beneath the invading tumor cells.
UI - 12019158
AU - Wu X; Lippman SM; Lee JJ; Zhu Y; Wei QV; Thomas M; Hong WK; Spitz MR
TI - Chromosome instability in lymphocytes: a potential indicator of predisposition to oral premalignant lesions.
SO - Cancer Res 2002 May 15;62(10):2813-8
AD - Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030, USA. email@example.com
Oral premalignant lesions (OPLs) are related to tobacco use and mark individuals at high risk for oral cancer development. Increased mutagen sensitivity as measured by an in vitro mutagen challenge assay has been shown to be a risk factor for upper aerodigestive tract cancers. In this case control study, we used two assays with mutagens relevant to tobacco exposure (benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide (BPDE) and bleomycin) to see whether sensitivity to these mutagens could be used as biomarkers for assessing risk of premalignant lesions. Furthermore, we evaluated whether 3p21.3 is a molecular target of BPDE damage in lymphocytes of patients with OPLs. There were 82 patients with OPLs and 89 healthy controls frequency matched to the cases on age, sex, ethnicity, and smoking status. These subjects' lymphocytes were treated in two separate experiments with either 2 microM BPDE for 24 h or 0.03 units/ml bleomycin for 5 h, and the frequency of induced chromatid breakage in Giemsa-stained preparations was determined. BPDE-induced 3p21.3 aberrations were scored by fluorescent in situ hybridization technique in 1000 interphases/sample. We found that the mean BPDE-induced chromatid breaks per cell were higher in cases than controls (1.05 +/- 0.40 and 0.55 +/- 0.27, respectively; P < 0.01). Similar results were evident with bleomycin-induced chromatid breaks per cell (0.78 +/- 0.37 and 0.57 +/- 0.31, respectively; P < 0.01). After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, and smoking status, significantly elevated odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for OPL risk were noted for BPDE sensitivity [12.96 (5.51, 30.46)] and bleomycin sensitivity [3.33 (1.64, 6.77)]. When subjects were categorized into quartiles of the number of breaks per cell, a dose response was observed for both assays. The adjusted odds ratios for subjects with increasing numbers of breaks per cell in quartiles were 2.34, 9.14, and 54.04 for BPDE sensitivity and 1.92, 3.33, and 7.15 for bleomycin sensitivity, respectively. Subjects sensitive to both mutagens had a 50-fold increased risk for OPLs. In addition, there were significantly more BPDE-induced chromosome aberrations at the 3p21.3 locus in cases (51.13/1000) than in controls (40.93/1000; P < 0.0001). However, no such difference was observed for 3q13, a control locus. BPDE-induced 3p21.3 aberrations were associated with an elevated risk for OPLs of 6.08 (2.57, 14.4). The degree of BPDE sensitivity at 3p21.3 and risk for OPLs increased in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, BDPE sensitivity and bleomycin sensitivity appear to be individually and jointly associated with elevated risk of OPLs. Furthermore, 3p21.3 may be a molecular target of BPDE in OPLs. This is the first study to examine mutagen sensitivity in a premalignant condition. The next step is to correlate these findings in surrogate (lymphocyte) tissue with molecular events in the target tissue.
UI - 11824876
AU - Robertson AG; Robertson C; Soutar DS; Burns H; Hole D; McCarron P
TI - Treatment of oral cancer: the need for defined protocols and specialist centres. variations in the treatment of oral cancer.
SO - Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2001;13(6):409-15
AD - Beatson Oncology Centre, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK.
The authors of this study aimed to identify treatment philosophies for oral cancer within the west of Scotland and to investigate any survival differences associated with the various treatment options by means of a retrospective review of case notes and cancer registry data. All patients with squamous cancer of the tongue or floor of the mouth were identified from the West of Scotland Cancer Registry for the period 1984-1990. A total of 206 patients were available for study. Five different treatment protocols were identified: 5% of patients underwent biopsy only, 16% biopsy plus radiotherapy, 11% excisional biopsy, 25% radical surgery, and 42% radical surgery plus radiotherapy. Tumour staging by the TNM classification was an important factor that determined outcome. When adjusting for T stage and nodal involvement, there was a significant effect of treatment protocol on both the disease-free period (P < 0.001) and on survival (P < 0.001). The treatment options were used differently by individual clinicians and were related to stage of the disease. One hundred and forty-four (70%) of the patients were treated by a single combined head and neck unit based within the plastic surgery unit at Canniesburn Hospital. The remaining 62 were treated in 13 different units throughout the west of Scotland. For those not treated in the combined head and neck unit, the increased hazard for recurrence was 1.43 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-2.02), and the increased hazard ratio for death was 1.48 (95% CI 1.06-2.06) when adjusting for tumour stage, and nodal involvement. Treatment philosophies for oral cancer have a significant effect on outcome. There is a need to develop clearly defined protocols based on staging and site of disease. We believe that treatment should be carried out within a multidisciplinary setting in a combined head and neck cancer unit.
UI - 12081206
AU - Hague A; Packham G; Huntley S; Shefford K; Eveson JW
TI - Deregulated Bag-1 protein expression in human oral squamous cell carcinomas and lymph node metastases.
SO - J Pathol 2002 May;197(1):60-71
AD - Department of Oral and Dental Science, University of Bristol, Bristol Dental Hospital and School, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
Bag-1 is an anti-apoptotic protein that promotes metastasis in some tumour cell types. To determine whether Bag-1 expression is altered in 64 oral squamous cell carcinomas, tumour samples were compared with 17 samples of normal oral epithelium. Normal oral epithelia had pronounced nuclear staining in the basal and maturation layers and weak cytoplasmic staining that was most pronounced in the basal and suprabasal layers. Oral squamous cell carcinomas demonstrated a tendency for reduced nuclear staining intensity (p=0.036). Cytoplasmic staining intensity was not significantly different between tumour and normal tissue. However, many tumours were observed to have less of a difference between nuclear staining intensity and cytoplasmic staining intensity than normal oral epithelium. Furthermore, in lymph node metastases, cytoplasmic Bag-1 staining was stronger in 8/13 cases than in corresponding primary tumours (p=0.021). Western blotting using nine oral primary carcinoma cell lines and four normal keratinocyte cultures showed that the isoforms Bag-1s, Bag-1M, and Bag-1L were expressed in normal and malignant oral epithelial cells. Bag-1L unique sequences were shown to adopt an exclusively nuclear, and predominantly nucleolar, localization by use of transiently transfected N-terminal Bag-1L-EGFP. However, levels of Bag-1L in carcinoma cells did not differ significantly from those of normal keratinocytes. Therefore the reduced nuclear staining observed in oral squamous cell carcinomas compared with normal epithelium may reflect changes in the localization of Bag-1 isoforms, rather than decreased expression of Bag-1L. Alterations in the relative proportions of Bag-1S, Bag-1M, and Bag-1L were detected in 6/9 oral carcinoma cell lines; 5/9 oral carcinoma cell lines had a significantly greater proportion of Bag-1M than normal keratinocytes and in another cell line, Bag-1L was significantly underrepresented. Overall, the results suggest that Bag-1 deregulation plays a role in oral carcinogenesis at two different stages: during primary carcinoma development and during lymph node metastasis.
UI - 12090042
AU - Yamashita Y; Goto M; Katsuki T
TI - [Chemotherapy by superselective intraarterial infusion of nedaplatin combined with radiotherapy for oral cancer]
SO - Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2002 Jun;29(6):905-9
AD - Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Saga Medical School.
Nedaplatin (CDGP), which is a CDDP derivative, has been reported to be an effective anticancer agent for head and neck cancer. This study was performed to assess the feasibility of chemotherapy by superselective intraarterial infusion of nedaplatin (CDGP) in patients with oral cancers. Ten patients were treated with chemotherapy by superselective intraarterial infusion of CDGP combined with radiotherapy. The complete and partial response rates were 7/10 (70%) and 3/10 (30%), respectively. Nine patients showed grade 1-2 hematological toxicity including leukocytopenia and anemia. Thrombocytopenia of grade 4 was seen in only one patient. However, all the patients were free from renal dysfunction. From these results, it is suggested that this combination therapy might be quite effective and safe. Further study will be needed to determine its efficacy against oral cancer.
UI - 12090043
AU - Kayahara H; Okuda M; Terakado N; Shintani S; Hamakawa H
TI - [Non-randomized clinical study comparing chemotherapy plus radiotherapy with radiotherapy alone in neoadjuvant therapy for oral cancer]
SO - Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 2002 Jun;29(6):911-6
AD - Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ehime University School of Medicine.
Neoadjuvant therapy plays an important role for organ preservation and survival rate in the treatment of oral cancer. We clinically compared the effect of neoadjuvant radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy in patients with oral cancer. We retrospectively examined 47 patients diagnosed with oral squamous cell carcinoma who underwent neoadjuvant therapy followed by curative surgery in the oral and maxillofacial surgery department of Ehime University Hospital. We divided them into two groups: radiotherapy alone (24 cases) and chemoradiotherapy (23 cases). The patients in the radiotherapy group underwent irradiation of 32.6 +/- 5.0 Gy (mean +/- SD). The patients in the chemoradiotherapy group received a low-dose fraction of cisplatin (8 mg/mm2/day, 5 days a week; total dose: 139.4 +/- 67.1 mg) and 5-fluorouracil (300 mg/mm2/day, 5 days a week; total dose: 5,900 +/- 1,839.8 mg) combined with simultaneous irradiation of 31.0 +/- 3.2 Gy. None of the 24 patients had a complete response to radiotherapy alone and 12 (50%) had a partial response. Six (26%) of the 23 patients had a complete response to chemoradiotherapy and 12 (52%) had a partial response. The primary control rate (82.6%) to chemoradiotherapy was higher than that (67.5%) to radiotherapy alone although no significant difference was found. The 5-year survival rate was 64.3% in the radiotherapy group and 62.8% in the chemoradiotherapy group. The findings of the present study suggest that while the combination of radiation and cisplatin/5-fluorouracil in neoadjuvant therapy for oral cancer may not bring a significant benefit to improve survival rate, the primary local control rate is improved in comparison with radiotherapy alone.
UI - 11921466
AU - Ossenkoppele GJ
TI - [Hematology and dentistry. Part V. Clinical manifestations of hematological malignancies in the oral cavity]
SO - Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd 1996 Jun;103(6):210-2
AD - Academisch Ziekenhuis van de Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam.
Haematological malignancies like acute and chronic leukemias, malignant lymphoma and plasma cell disorders may exhibit oral manifestation during their course. In this article the oral manifestation of a number of haematological malignancies presented in the oral cavity as well as the complications of the treatment are described.
UI - 12027954
AU - Hsu S; Borke JL; Lewis JB; Singh B; Aiken AC; Huynh CT; Schuster GS;
TI - Caughman GB; Dickinson DP; Smith AK; Osaki T; Wang XF Transforming growth factor beta 1 dysregulation in a human oral carcinoma tumour progression model.
SO - Cell Prolif 2002 Jun;35(3):183-92
AD - Department of Oral Biology and Maxillofacial Pathology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912-1126, USA. email@example.com
A human oral tumour progression model was established that consists of normal epithelial cells and three cell lines representing stages from dysplastic to metastatic cells. To investigate the impact of exogenous transforming growth factor-beta 1 on this model system, we analysed the responsiveness of those cells to transforming growth factor-beta 1 and explored the potential mechanism underlying the transforming growth factor-beta 1 activity. We found that the growth of all cell types, regardless of their stage of tumour progression, is inhibited by transforming growth factor-beta 1, although to different degrees. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 induced the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p15(INK4B), p21WAF1/(CIP1) and p27(KIP1). In contrast, transforming growth factor-beta 1 was found to stimulate the invasive potential of one cell type that represents the most advanced stage of tumour phenotype, suggesting that the impact of transforming growth factor-beta 1 on functional features of tumour cells other than cellular proliferation may play a significant role in the process of oral tumour progression.
UI - 11921919
AU - van der Waal I
TI - [Mouth neoplasms: a review]
SO - Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd 1996 Sep;103(9):345-7
AD - Vakgroep Mondziekten en Kaakchirurgie/Orale Pathologie, Vrije Universiteit te Amsterdam, Academisch Centrum Tandheelkunde Amsterdam (ACTA).
An overview is presented of the epidemiology, etiology, clinical and diagnostic aspects, treatment and possible prevention of oral cancer. The dental profession may play a key role in the early detection of cancer and possible precursor lesions such as leukoplakia and erythroplakia. Since the use of tobacco is considered to be the main etiologic factor in oral cancer the dentist can play an active role in its primary prevention by informing his patients about the adverse effect of tobacco use and by encouraging patients to enter tobacco cessation programs.
UI - 11921920
AU - Roodenburg JL; Nauta JM; Vermey A
TI - [Treatment of mouth cancer. General principles as well as surgical aspects]
SO - Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd 1996 Sep;103(9):348-9
AD - Afdeling Mondziekten, Kaakchirurgie en Bijzondere Tandheelkunde, sectie Oncologie, Academisch Ziekenhuis Groningen, Postbus 30.001, 9700 RB Groningen.
An overview is presented of the various treatment modalities in head and neck cancer, the emphasis being on oral cancer. Evaluation of the neck with regard to the possible presence of regional lymph node metastases is an integral part of the examination and treatment of patients with oral cancer. A strong plea is made for a multidisciplinary approach in the treatment and rehabilitation of this patient group.
UI - 11921926
AU - Meijer van Putten JB
TI - [Treatment of mouth cancer at the end of the nineteenth century]
SO - Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd 1996 Sep;103(9):377-8
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