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National Cancer Institute®
Ultima Vez Modificado: 1 de febrero del 2002
UI - 11748644
AU - Yakirevich E; Lefel O; Sova Y; Stein A; Cohen O; Izhak OB; Resnick MB
TI - Activated status of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes and apoptosis in testicular seminoma.
SO - J Pathol 2002 Jan;196(1):67-75
AD - Department of Pathology, The Lady Davis Carmel Medical Center and the Technion Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Haifa, Israel.
Testicular seminoma is characterized by a prominent lymphoid infiltrate and an excellent prognosis. Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) infiltrating seminoma tumour nests constitute a major subset of the lymphoid infiltrate. The objective of this study was to determine whether CTLs express markers of cytotoxic potential and activity and whether the number of activated CTLs correlates with the extent of apoptosis in testicular seminomas, as opposed to non-seminomatous testicular germ cell tumours (NSTGCTs). Twenty cases of pure seminoma as well as 20 cases of NSTGCTs including 16 mixed germ cell tumours (MGCTs) were studied. Immunohistochemistry for the cytotoxic markers TIA-1 (cytotoxic potential) and granzyme B (cytotoxic activity) and the T-cell markers CD3 and CD8 was performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections. The apoptotic index (AI) was determined by the TUNEL method. The number of CD3(+), CD8(+), TIA-1(+), and granzyme B(+) cells in tumour cell nests was markedly increased in testicular seminomas, compared with NSTGCTs (p<0.01). Activated granzyme B(+) cells numbered 25.6+/-5.2 per high power field in seminomas and 8.9+/-3.2, 8.1+/-3.9, and 0.4+/-0.2 for embryonal carcinomas, yolk sac tumours, and immature teratomas, respectively. Double immunohistochemical staining for granzyme B and CD8 revealed that 82.6+/-8.5% of granzyme B-expressing cells were CD8(+). The tumour cell AI was significantly increased in embryonal carcinoma, compared with the seminoma, yolk sac tumour, and immature teratoma subgroups (6.7+/-1.3, 2.3+/-0.3, 3.0+/-1.1, and 2.3+/-1.1, respectively, p<0.001). TUNEL/CD3 double immunostaining revealed that a significant proportion of the apoptotic seminomatous tumour cells were in direct contact with one or more CD3(+) lymphocytes (47.2+/-6.2%). The number of activated granzyme B(+) CTLs showed a strong linear correlation with the AI in the seminoma group (r=0.71, p<0.0001) but not in other subgroups. TUNEL/granzyme B double immunolabelling revealed that a proportion of activated granzyme B(+) lymphocytes (20%) were often seen in close contact with apoptotic tumour cells. The presence of increased numbers of activated cytotoxic lymphocytes in testicular seminomas suggests that apoptotic tumour cell death in this neoplasm may be triggered by cytotoxic granule effectors. This phenomenon may be one of the key host immune mechanisms leading to the excellent prognosis in this tumour. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
UI - 11260636
AU - Lu D; Medeiros LJ; Eskenazi AE; Abruzzo LV
TI - Primary follicular large cell lymphoma of the testis in a child.
SO - Arch Pathol Lab Med 2001 Apr;125(4):551-4
AD - Department of Hematopathy, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd., Houston, TX 77030, USA.
Primary follicular lymphoma of the testis in childhood is extremely rare. To our knowledge, only 5 cases have been reported to date. We report a case in a 6-year-old boy who presented with painless right scrotal enlargement. Right radical orchiectomy revealed a follicular large cell lymphoma with diffuse areas confined to the testis and epididymis, clinical stage IE. Immunohistochemical stains demonstrated that the neoplastic cells were of B-cell lineage, positive for CD10, CD20, CD79a, and BCL-6. Staining for CD21 accentuated networks of dendritic reticulum cells within the nodules. The cells were negative for BCL-2, p53, and T-cell antigens. There was no evidence of the t(14;18) detected by polymerase chain reaction. The data suggest that follicular lymphoma of the testis in children has a different pathogenesis than follicular lymphoma in adults.
UI - 11789392
AU - Dassy S; Coibion-Jossa V; Demelenne A; Jehaes C; Weerts J; Sakalihassan
TI - N; Closon-Dejardin MT; Focan C [Anatomic-clinical presentation. Testicular teratocarcinoma with thoracic-abdominal adenopathy]
SO - Rev Med Liege 2001 Nov;56(11):777-84
AD - Service d'Oncologie Medicale, Les Cliniques Saint-Joseph, Liege.
This case report of a young man with a testicular germ cell-teratoma tumor illustrates the necessity of a multidisciplinary sequential approach to ensure chance of cure. The outcome of patients with advanced germ cell tumor depends on the optimal clinical management. Residual masses are frequent, and their histology can be different than the initial one (i.e., only residual mature teratoma cells or necrosis-fibrosis). Therefore a second surgery on residual masses with curative intent, may be important to optimalize the treatment and follow up.
UI - 11554630
AU - Livsey JE; Taylor B; Mobarek N; Cooper RA; Carrington B; Logue JP
TI - Patterns of relapse following radiotherapy for stage I seminoma of the testis: implications for follow-up.
SO - Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2001;13(4):296-300
AD - Department of Clinical Oncology, Christie Hospital, Manchester, UK.
A retrospective review was undertaken of 409 consecutive patients treated with adjuvant radiotherapy for Stage I seminoma between 1988 and 1997. A total of 339 men were treated to a volume encompassing the para-aortic nodes and 70 were treated with extended field radiotherapy. The patients were followed up within oncology clinics adhering to a standard protocol of clinical examination, chest radiography and measurement of serum marker levels. No routine computed tomographic (CT) scans were carried out. At a median follow-up of 57 months, 13 patients have relapsed, giving a recurrence-free rate of 97.2% at 3 years and 96.8% at 5 years. Of these, eight (62%) were detected at routine appointments and five (38%) requested early appointments. Chest radiography (2/5) and serum marker levels (3/5) identified disease in asymptomatic patients. Eight patients (62%) had raised markers at relapse, including two with normal serum markers at original presentation. The median size of pelvic node recurrences in the para-aortic-treated group was 7.3 cm (2.8-13 cm). Four patients have developed second testicular primaries: three were detected at routine appointments and one patient had requested an early appointment. We conclude that regular follow-up with serum marker estimations and chest radiography is sufficient to detect recurrence at an early stage and that our policy of no routine CT scanning has been shown to give acceptable results.
UI - 11554631
AU - Meyer T; Cole LA; Richman PI; Mitchell HD; Myers J; Rustin GJ
TI - High levels of hCG in choriocarcinoma can result in renal failure and a false-negative pregnancy test in men.
SO - Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2001;13(4):301-3
AD - Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, UK.
The diagnosis of choriocarcinoma was delayed because a urinary pregnancy test for hCG was falsely negative. This man's hCG rose to 25,000,000 iu/l. He developed renal impairment, probably due to precipitation of hCG in his renal rubules.
UI - 11554632
AU - Asthana S; Deo SV; Shukla NK; Raina V; Kumar L
TI - Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome presenting with bilateral intra-abdominal gonadal tumours and obstructive uropathy.
SO - Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2001;13(4):304-6
AD - Institute Rotary Cancer Hospital, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi.
Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive intersex disorder characterized by the presence of completely developed Mullerian duct derivatives in an otherwise normally virilized male with a 46, XY karyotype. We discuss a rare presentation of this disorder, bilateral gonadal tumours with obstructive uropathy, and its management, together with a review of the literature.
UI - 11802540
AU - Liu SP; Huang SW; Lin KH; Lin MC; Hsieh JT
TI - Ruptured cystic teratoma of the testis in a neonate.
SO - J Formos Med Assoc 2001 Nov;100(11):779-81
AD - Department of Urology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taiwan.
Neonatal testicular tumors are extremely rare. We report the case of a full-term male newborn with right hemiscrotal swelling found immediately after birth. The right hemiscrotal skin gradually turned dusky dark and then adhered to the hard scrotal contents. Missed right testicular torsion was suspected and emergency exploration was not attempted. Right hemiscrotal swelling became aggravated, so right orchiectomy and left orchidopexy were performed. During surgery, severe inflammation of the right testis and the right hemiscrotum were observed and diffuse hemorrhage with focal hematomas was noted within the removed right testis. Histopathology of the specimen revealed a ruptured mature cystic teratoma of the testis. The alpha-fetoprotein concentration was 729 x 10(4) micrograms/L 10 days after the operation, and dropped to 185 x 10(4), 25 x 10(4), and less than 20 x 10(4) micrograms/L 2, 5, and 8 months later, respectively. Postoperative abdominal and pelvic computerized tomography scans revealed neither lymphadenopathy nor distant metastasis. During a follow-up of 8 months, no evidence of tumor recurrence was found. Although extremely rare, testicular tumors should be included in the differential diagnosis of an enlarged hard or firm scrotal mass in the male neonate.
UI - 11209365
AU - Coleman J
TI - Every man for himself.
SO - Nurs Stand 1999 Dec 15-2000 Jan 4;14(13-15):22-3
UI - 11235371
AU - Cook R
TI - Teaching and promoting testicular self-examination.
SO - Nurs Stand 2000 Mar 1-7;14(24):48-51; quiz 53-4
Testicular cancer is the commonest malignancy of young men, but it also has a high cure rate. This article discusses the teaching and promotion of testicular self-examination as a technique for early detection of the disease.
UI - 11464128
AU - Medica M; Germinale F; Giglio M; Stubinski R; Campodonico F; Raggio M;
TI - Carmignani G Adult testicular pure yolk sac tumor.
SO - Urol Int 2001;67(1):94-6
AD - 'Luciano Giuliani' Department of Urology, University of Genoa, Italy.
Here we describe the clinical, ultrasonographic and histological features of a rare pure adult yolk sac tumor detected in the right testis of a 44-year-old male. Due to the rarity of this neoplasm (less than 10 cases have been reported), there is no unanimous consensus for therapy following inguinal orchiectomy. We believe that nerve-sparing retroperitoneal lymph node dissection could be potentially curative and useful for future interpretations of this tumor's potential evolution. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel
UI - 11464129
AU - Novella G; Porcaro AB; Righetti R; Cavalleri S; Beltrami P; Ficarra V;
TI - Brunelli M; Martignoni G; Malossini G; Tallarigo C Primary lymphoma of the epididymis: case report and review of the literature.
SO - Urol Int 2001;67(1):97-9
AD - Department of Urology, University of Verona, Italy. email@example.com
OBJECTIVE: To report an extremely rare clinical pathological observation of a case of primary lymphoma of the epididymis, without testicular or systemic involvement, and to update the relevant literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 25-year-old white male patient complaining of right scrotal pain was referred to our department. Clinical examination detected a hard painful mass at the right epididymal head. Epididymitis was diagnosed and conservative therapy with antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs was given. After 2 months of therapy the patient was admitted to our department because a tumor was suspected. Tumor markers were normal. Right scrotal exploration was performed through a standard inguinal incision. The epididymal head was completely replaced by a hard white mass. Fresh frozen sections indicated a malignant tumor. Right radical orchiectomy was performed. RESULTS: High-grade primary epididymal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with diffuse large cells (group G according to the Working Formulation) was diagnosed. Clinical pathological staging detected stage IE (extranodal) primary epididymal lymphoma. The patient was referred to the Hematologic Unit for combined chemotherapy, according to the VACOP-B protocol. After an 18-month follow-up the patient is well and disease free. CONCLUSIONS: When an epididymal mass does not benefit from medical treatment, scrotal exploration and fresh frozen sections of the lesion should be done. The possible bilateral involvement by primary epididymal lymphoma has to be kept in mind. Radical orchiectomy is the treatment of choice for primary lymphoma of the epididymis. Adjuvant chemotherapy is indicated in high-grade malignant lymphoma. Prognostic parameters of the disease may be the grade of malignancy and the size of the tumor. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel
UI - 11490219
AU - Minowada S; Okano Y; Miyazaki J; Homma Y; Kitamura T
TI - Multidisciplinary treatment of advanced testicular tumor with bulky liver metastasis.
SO - Urol Int 2001;67(2):178-80
AD - Department of Urology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Japan. MINOWADAS-URO@h.u-tokyo.ac.jp
A 21-year-old man with far-advanced nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the left testis is presented. He had multiple bulky metastases in the liver and retroperitoneum with an extraordinarily elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (23,500 ng/ml). He received multidisciplinary treatment consisting of systemic chemotherapy, cytoreductive left hepatic lobectomy, percutaneous ablation therapy, transarterial chemoembolization, and external beam irradiation for median segments of the liver. The efficient combination treatment normalized the tumor markers within 6 months and has maintained complete serological remission for 4.7 years. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel.
UI - 11796292
AU - Holtl L; Peschel R; Knapp R; Janetschek G; Steiner H; Hittmair A;
TI - Rogatsch H; Bartsch G; Hobisch A Primary lymphatic metastatic spread in testicular cancer occurs ventral to the lumbar vessels.
SO - Urology 2002 Jan;59(1):114-8
AD - Department of Urology, Innsbruck, Austria.
OBJECTIVES: To analyze whether primary metastatic spread occurs behind the lumbar vessels and whether removal is necessary for accurate staging in diagnostic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, because dissection of lymphatic tissue behind the lumbar vessels is a challenging maneuver. METHODS: One hundred thirty-nine patients were included in our study. Twenty-nine patients with clinical Stage I tumor underwent laparoscopic staging lymph node dissection, including removal of the lymph nodes behind the lumbar vessels. Sixty-four patients with Stage II testicular cancer were retrospectively examined by computed tomography to determine the localization of the enlarged lymph nodes in relation to the lumbar vessels. On the basis of these results, 49 patients with clinical Stage I underwent laparoscopic lymph node dissection within the same template but without dissection of the lymphatic tissue behind the lumbar vessels. RESULTS: In the first group, 10 of 29 patients had pathologic Stage IIA tumors, with positive nodes exclusively ventral to the lumbar vessels. In group 2, 39 patients with solitary metastatic lesions had enlarged lymph nodes, which were always ventral to the lumbar vessels. Only in 3 of 25 patients with multiple metastases was one enlarged node found behind the lumbar vessels. In group 3, no tumor recurrence either before or behind the lumbar vessels could be found in 46 patients after a mean follow-up of 27.8 months. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of these data, we believe that primary lymphatic metastatic spread in testicular cancer always occurs ventral to the lumbar vessels. Therefore, the removal of lymphatic tissue behind the lumbar vessels for diagnostic procedures is not necessary.
UI - 11556746
AU - Moore BE; Banner BF; Gokden M; Woda B; Liu Y; Ayala A; Jiang Z
TI - p53: a good diagnostic marker for intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified.
SO - Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 2001 Sep;9(3):203-6
AD - Department of Pathology, University of Massachusetts Memorial Medical Center, Worcester 01655, USA.
Intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified (IGCNU) is a precursor of germ cell tumors (GCT) of the testis. In routine histologic sections, neoplastic intratubular germ cells may be very few and easily overlooked. The aim of this study is two-fold: to establish the immunohistochemical pattern of expression of p53 in IGCNU and GCT and to determine whether p53 can be used as a marker for IGCNU. Resection specimens from 14 seminomas, 14 mixed germ cell tumors (MGCT), 3 embryonal carcinomas, 2 mature teratomas, 7 IGCNUs, and 11 normal testes were stained for p53. Normal germ cells and Sertoli cells of the seminiferous tubules in all normal testes were negative for p53. The tumor cells of all IGCNU cases were positive for p53. All invasive components of mixed germ cell tumors, embryonal carcinomas, and seminomas exhibited expression of p53. Mature teratoma components were negative for p53. These findings indicate that p53 is a highly sensitive marker of IGCNU and highly specific in distinguishing lesional tissue from normal seminiferous tubules. The current findings also suggest that p53 may be involved as an early step in the malignant progression of most germ cell neoplasias.
UI - 11556730
AU - Suzuki K; Hoshi S; Orikasa S
TI - Recurrence pattern of metastatic testicular cancers after chemotherapy.
SO - Tohoku J Exp Med 2001 May;194(1):17-22
AD - Department of Urology, Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai. firstname.lastname@example.org
Recurrence pattern of metastatic testicular cancer after the initial treatment was investigated. Seventy-seven patients with metastatic testicular cancer were treated by cisplatin-based chemotherapy. Patients with residual masses after chemotherapy and whose tumor markers were normalized underwent surgical resections. Of the 77 patients, 61 achieved cancer free status and 4 who did not need the study criteria excluded. Recurrences were detected in 12 (21.1%) patients, 2 (7.1%) patients among 28 stage II patients; 10 (34.5%) patients among 29 stage III patients; none (0%) patients among 14 seminoma patients and 12 (27.9%) patients among 43 non-seminoma patients. All recurrences were detected within 17 months (median, 3) after the initial treatment. Of the 12 patients experiencing recurrence, 4 died of cancer. The recurrence rate of the patients in stage III was significantly higher than that in stage II. No recurrence was detected in patients with seminoma. Follow-up studies after treatment should include serum tumor markers and computed tomographic scanning of lung, abdomen and pelvis at defined intervals. Intensive follow-up will be needed especially for the patients in stage III and with non-seminoma. Follow-up within the first two years is especially important in detecting recurrence after chemotherapy.
UI - 11809703
AU - Kraggerud SM; Aman P; Holm R; Stenwig AE; Fossa SD; Nesland JM; Lothe RA
TI - Alterations of the fragile histidine triad gene, FHIT, and its encoded products contribute to testicular germ cell tumorigenesis.
SO - Cancer Res 2002 Jan 15;62(2):512-7
AD - Department of Genetics, Institute for Cancer Research, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, N-0310 Oslo, Norway.
The fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene, located within chromosome arm 3p, is a potential target for testicular tumorigenesis. In the present study, 62 primary testicular germ cell tumors were analyzed for allelic imbalance (AI) at 10 loci mapping to chromosome bands 3p14.1-21.1. Twenty-seven tumors (44%) showed AI at one or more 3p loci. The chromosome 3 copy number was evaluated by fluorescence in situ hybridization with centromere and p-telomere probes onto interphase nuclei from 22 of the tumors. Sixteen of these (73%) presented three or more signals of each probe in at least one-third of the nuclei. The combined fluorescence in situ hybridization and AI results indicated that tumors with AI at all loci, in most cases (five of six), reflected an increased chromosome copy number, whereas tumors presenting AI only at some loci reflected interstitial chromosomal changes. A smallest region of overlapping changes could be delineated from tumors showing interstitial chromosomal changes (n = 16). The smallest region of overlapping changes was flanked by D3S1312 and D3S1234 and included parts of FHIT. In the second part of this study, expression analyses of FHIT were performed. Transcripts of aberrant lengths were found in 7 of 17 (41%) analyzed tumors and were identified by sequencing as splice variants. Three different types of transcripts were found, and all lacked exon 3. Immunohistochemical staining showed reduced Fhit protein expression, compared with normal testicular tissue, in 62% (40 of 65) of the testicular germ cell tumors. Although we found a significant association between FHIT mRNA alterations and AI (P = 0.006), altered protein expression did not correlate with AI. The nonepithelial components of teratomas showed strong association with reduced Fhit protein compared with the epithelial component (P < 0.001). Interestingly, reduced Fhit expression seems to be associated with metastasis in the patient at the time of diagnosis, although the association was not statistically significant.
UI - 11828773
AU - Kato Y; Kawakami N; Fujii H; Hashimoto H; Yachiku S
TI - [A case of Sertoli cell tumor of the testis]
SO - Hinyokika Kiyo 2001 Dec;47(12):857-60
AD - Department of Urology, Kitami Red-Cross Hospital.
A 24-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with the complaint of a painless mass in the left testis. Gynecomastia was not present. The serum levels of alpha fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotropin-beta were not elevated. Ultrasound sonography showed a hypoechoic lesion in the left testis. There was no evidence of retroperitoneal lymph node enlargement or distant metastasis on computerized tomography. With a diagnosis of left testicular tumor, left high orchiectomy was done. The tumor measured 10 x 11 mm in size within the testis and was histologically diagnosed as benign Sertoli cell tumor. Immunohistochemcal analysis revealed negative findings with the tumor markers inhibin, CAM 5.2, pancytokeratin, EMA, and PLAP. No adjuvant therapy was performed. Twenty-six cases of Sertoli cell tumor of the testis in the Japanese literature are reviewed.
UI - 11806877
AU - Moller H
TI - Testicular cancer risk in relation to use of disposable nappies.
SO - Arch Dis Child 2002 Jan;86(1):28-9
AD - Thames Cancer Registry, King's College London, 42 Weston Street, London SE1 3QD, UK. email@example.com
Information on the use of disposable nappies in childhood was available for 296 testicular cancer cases and 287 population controls in Denmark. No association was found between disposable nappy use and the subsequent risk of testicular cancer in adulthood.
UI - 11680837
AU - Pentheroudakis G; O'Neill VJ; Vasey P; Kaye SB
TI - Spontaneous acute tumour lysis syndrome in patients with metastatic germ cell tumours. Report of two cases.
SO - Support Care Cancer 2001 Oct;9(7):554-7
AD - Department of Medical Oncology, Beatson Oncology Centre, Western Infirmary, Glasgow, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
Acute tumour lysis syndrome (TLS), a condition resulting from rapid destruction of tumour cells with massive release of cellular breakdown products, has been described following the treatment of various malignancies. However, spontaneous TLS has been described only rarely. Germ cell tumours (GCT) have a rapid cell turnover and often present with bulky metastatic disease. We report two cases of patients with metastatic GCT presenting with acute renal failure attributable to spontaneous TLS. All clinical and biochemical features of the syndrome were present. Both patients were treated with haemodialysis and intravenous administration of single-agent etoposide between dialysis sessions, resulting in recovery of renal function and marked decrease in tumour bulk within the first week after presentation. These cases are the first reported instances of spontaneous TLS in poor-risk metastatic GCT. Successful treatment with dialysis and chemotherapy is possible, and prophylactic vigorous hydration and allopurinol may be warranted in this setting.
UI - 11780424
AU - Zeng L; Xia T; Kong X; Na Y; Guo Y
TI - Primary carcinoid tumor of the epididymis.
SO - Chin Med J (Engl) 2001 May;114(5):544-5
AD - Department of Pathology, Institute of Urology, First Hospital of Peking University, 1 Da Hongluo Chang Street, Beijing 100034, China. email@example.com
UI - 11795931
AU - Rodewald A; Kittner T; Hahn G
TI - The Carney complex: a rare differential diagnosis in cases with pituitary adenoma and testicular Sertoli cell tumour.
SO - Clin Radiol 2001 Dec;56(12):993-6
AD - Department of Radiology, University of Dresden, Dresden, Germany.
UI - 11834380
AU - Chang SS; Roth B
TI - Treatment of clinical stage I germ cell tumors.
SO - Urology 2002 Feb;59(2):173-9
AD - Department of Urologic Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37232, USA.
UI - 11834406
AU - Peterson AC; Porter M; Porter J
TI - Adult testicular sarcoma: presentation, evaluation, and treatment.
SO - Urology 2002 Feb;59(2):294-5
AD - Department of Surgery, Urology Service, Madigan Army Medical Center, Tacoma, Washington 98431-1100, USA.
UI - 11758031
AU - Sadowski EA; Salomon CG; Wojcik EM; Albala D
TI - Fibroma of the testicular tunics: an unusual extratesticular intrascrotal mass.
SO - J Ultrasound Med 2001 Nov;20(11):1245-8
AD - Department of Radiology, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Illinois 60153, USA.
UI - 11758034
AU - Siu SS; Leung TN; Leung TY; Ng SW; Yeung CK; Lau TK
TI - Prenatal diagnosis of intra-abdominal mature testicular teratoma.
SO - J Ultrasound Med 2001 Nov;20(11):1257-60
AD - Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin.
UI - 11810253
AU - Vinogradova T; Leppik L; Kalinina E; Zhulidov P; Grzeschik KH; Sverdlov
TI - E Selective Differential Display of RNAs containing interspersed repeats: analysis of changes in the transcription of HERV-K LTRs in germ cell tumors.
SO - Mol Genet Genomics 2002 Jan;266(5):796-805
AD - Shemyakin-Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry, Miklukho-Maklaya 16/10, Moscow 117871, Russia. firstname.lastname@example.org
A technique for the Selective Differential Display of RNAs containing Interspersed Repeats (SDDIR) has been elaborated. SDDIR involves two main steps: (1) selective amplification by RT-PCR of a subset of the total cellular RNA containing a certain type of repetitive element, and (2) side-by-side display of the amplicons derived from the tissues under comparison by means of gel electrophoresis in parallel lanes. The technique was used to compare the expression of transcripts containing LTR (Long Terminal Repeat) sequences derived from human endogenous retrovirus K (HERV-K) in testicular germ cell tumors and in corresponding normal tissue. SDDIR enabled us to obtain an overview of LTRs represented in the total transcribed fraction and to reveal differences in transcription patterns of the LTRs in normal and tumor tissues. An unexpectedly large number of LTRs was found to be transcribed, and the levels of many of the transcripts differed between normal and tumor tissues.
UI - 11697829
AU - Anonymous
TI - ESMO minimum clinical recommendations for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of mixed or non-seminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT).
SO - Ann Oncol 2001 Sep;12(9):1215-6
UI - 11697846
AU - Lagrange JL; Ramaioli A; Theodore CH; Terrier-Lacombe MJ; Beckendorf V;
TI - Biron P; Chevreau CH; Chinet-Charrot P; Dumont J; Delobel-Deroide A; D'Anjou J; Chassagne C; Parache RM; Karsenty JM; Mercier J; Droz JP; Radiation Therapy Group and the Genito-Urinary Group of the French Federation of Cancer Centres Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the testis: a retrospective study of 84 patients treated in the French anticancer centres.
SO - Ann Oncol 2001 Sep;12(9):1313-9
AD - Radiation Therapy Group of the Federation of Cancer Centers, Paris, France.
Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the testicle is rare. We analysed cases treated in French anticancer centres from 1969 to 1995. All cases were reviewed and classified according to the R.E.A.L. Classification. Eighty-four cases were included in this study. The median age was 67 years (17-85). Disease was classified as stages I in 42 cases, stages II in 19 and stages III-IV in 23. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was diagnosed in 75% of cases. Treatment included orchidectomy and radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. A complete response was obtained in 72.6% of the patient population and in 100%, 68% and 33% of stage I, II and III-IV disease respectively. Recurrence occurred in 32 cases and the most frequent site was the central nervous system: six of these patients presented stage I disease. Median overall survival was 32 months for the entire population, 52 months for stage I, 32 months for stage II, and 12 months for stage III-IV cases (P < 0.0001). Among patients presenting stage I disease, no difference was found between those treated with combined surgery and chemotherapy or surgery followed or not followed by radiotherapy. This study confirms that non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the testicle carries a poor prognosis. Systemic adjuvant chemotherapy should be discussed because of the high recurrence rate. Inclusion of these cases in large co-operative prospective studies is recommended.
UI - 11803271
AU - Powari M; Kakkar N; Singh SK; Rai RS; Jogai S
TI - Malignant Leydig cell tumour of the testis.
SO - Urol Int 2002;68(1):63-5
AD - Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Reserach, Chandigarh, India.
A case of malignant Leydig cell tumour is presented. It is a rare primary malignant tumour of the testis and occurs exclusively in adults. The present case is of interest because it occurred at the young age of 25 years which is rare. Histologically it showed almost all features which suggest malignancy and also had metastases to the lungs and liver. The clinical details and pathology of this tumour are discussed. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel
UI - 11842533
AU - Nakata S; Takahashi H; Ohtake N; Yamanaka H
TI - [Chronological and regional differences of testicular cancer--epidemiological analysis of incidence in gunma prefecture and estimated data of national survey, and of death in Japan]
SO - Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi 2002 Jan;93(1):1-6
AD - Department of Urology, Ashikaga Red Cross Hospital.
PURPOSE: The incidence of testicular cancer is rare. However, it is a significant cancer in that it develops not only in old age but also in children and younger age. We investigated the epidemiological characteristics of testicular cancer in Japan, in order to elucidate its features and problems. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We surveyed hospitals and clinics in and around Gunma prefecture that treated patients with urologic diseases and reviewed the pathology records from 1985 to 1994, and calculated the annual age-adjusted incidence rates of testicular cancer. Incidence rates in Japan were taken from the estimates made by 'The Research Group for Population-based Cancer Registration in Japan'. The annual number of deaths, annual age-adjusted death rates from 1947 and 1998, the age-specific death rates and decrease rate of them, and the prefectural standardized mortality ratio (SMR) from 1973 and 1998 was calculated from the data reported by Ohno et al. and statistical tables kept in 'Statistics and Information Department, Minister's Secretariat, Ministry of Health and Welfare'. RESULTS: In Gunma Prefecture, the annual age-adjusted incidence rates tended to increase. In estimated data of national survey, it slightly increased from 1975-79 to 1980-84, and remained stable thereafter. The annual number of deaths and age-adjusted death rates tended to decrease from around 1980. The peak of age-specific death rates was seen in infants, age 20 to 40 and old age. The decrease in the age-specific death rate was prominent for age under 20 and old age, but not significant for age 25 to 34. Prefectures in which SMR was high (> or = 120) were distributed all over Japan, but prefectures in which SMR was low (< or = 80) were concentrated in western Japan. CONCLUSIONS: The annual number of deaths and age-adjusted death rates began to decrease from around 1980, which coincided with the time the clinical trial of cis-platinum began. More than 100 deaths of testicular cancer are reported even now, early diagnosis, early treatment, and improvement of treatment strategy to far-advanced cases are necessary.
UI - 11832717
AU - Washecka R; Dresner MI; Honda SA
TI - Testicular tumors in Carney's complex.
SO - J Urol 2002 Mar;167(3):1299-302
AD - Department of Urology, Hawaii Kaiser Permanente Medical Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.
PURPOSE: Bilateral sex cord stromal testicular tumors are common in the syndrome of myxoma, spotty pigmentation and endocrine overactivity (Carney's complex). Large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor is the particular testicular tumor found in Carney's complex. A clinicopathological review of 26 patients is presented. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We report 2 cases of Carney's complex with testicular tumors. An additional 24 patients with Carney's complex and testicular tumors were identified by MEDLINE search and review of the literature. RESULTS: Bilateral testicular tumors were found in 16 patients (61%) with a familial occurrence in 10 (38%). A testicular mass was the most common presentation. The associated findings of Carney's complex included cardiac myxoma in 16 patients, skin myxoma in 16, skin pigmentation in 15, Cushing's syndrome in 8, acromegaly in 3 and schwannoma in 3. Excisional biopsy, surveillance, bilateral orchiectomy and unilateral orchiectomy were performed in 7, 4, 7 and 8 patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: No local tumor recurrence or metastasis has developed in patients with bilateral and/or multifocal testicular tumors. Excisional biopsy or surveillance only are treatment options for bilateral testicular tumors in Carney's complex.
UI - 11832725
AU - Oh J; Landman J; Evers A; Yan Y; Kibel AS
TI - Management of the postpubertal patient with cryptorchidism: an updated analysis.
SO - J Urol 2002 Mar;167(3):1329-33
AD - Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, Missouri, USA.
PURPOSE: Management of the postpubertal cryptorchid testis depends on patient age at presentation. Based on the belief that the risk of death from surgery first exceeds the risk of death from testis cancer at age 32 years patients younger than 32 years are advised to undergo orchiectomy, while those older than 32 years are advised to remain under close observation. However, the data on which this recommendation is based are now a quarter-century old. During this interval significant improvements have been made in perioperative care and germ cell tumor therapy. We revisited the topic using contemporary data to determine whether and how recommendations on management of the postpubertal cryptorchid testis should be changed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Contemporary data on germ cell mortality in the United States were obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics. From these data the lifetime risk of death from germ cell cancer in the general population was calculated for each 5-year interval between ages 15 and 60 years. Since the lifetime risk of germ cell tumor is believed to be higher in patients with cryptorchidism than in the general population, the lifetime risk of eventual death from germ cell tumor in the cryptorchid population was calculated by multiplying each 5-year lifetime risk by 9.7, which is the generally accepted relative risk of germ cell tumor in a cryptorchid testis. Contemporary literature on perioperative mortality was reviewed and we estimated the current mortality of orchiectomy based on American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class. Mortality rates were plotted to determine the age when operative mortality exceeds the risk of mortality from germ cell malignancy. RESULTS: While perioperative mortality and germ cell neoplasia mortality decreased in the last 25 years, the relative decrease in perioperative mortality was significantly greater. Thus, in ASA class I or II cases mortality from orchiectomy began to exceed mortality from germ cell cancer at age 50 years. CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in therapy for germ cell neoplasia and perioperative care in the last 25 years have dramatically decreased the mortality of each cause. However, the decrease in perioperative mortality has been greater. In contrast to a generation ago, accidental death during routine elective surgery is now extremely rare in healthy patients. Thus, we advocate orchiectomy in all healthy males (ASA I and II) who present with postpubertal cryptorchidism until age 50 years.
UI - 11832775
AU - Hara I; Yamada Y; Miyake H; Hara S; Gotoh A; Fujisawa M; Okada H;
TI - Arakawa S; Kamidono S Detection of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin expressing cells by nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in the peripheral blood stem cells of patients with advanced germ cell tumor.
SO - J Urol 2002 Mar;167(3):1487-91
AD - Department of Urology, Kobe University School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan.
PURPOSE: We investigated whether peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) were contaminated by tumor cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 13 patients with advanced testicular cancer underwent PBSC transplantation at our institute. Nested reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction using primers specific for beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-HCG) or alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) detected 1 beta-HCG or AFP producing cell in 1 x 10(6) PBSCs. RESULTS: Although AFP messenger (m) RNA was not identified in any of the 13 patients, beta-HCG mRNA was detected in 7. All patients with beta-HCG mRNA in PBSCs had elevated serum beta-HCG before treatment. Three patients with a normal beta-HCG range before treatment did not have beta-HCG mRNA in the PBSCs. The serum beta-HCG level in the patients whose PBSCs were contaminated with tumor cells was significantly higher than in patients whose PBSCs contained no tumor cells. Four of the 7 patients with beta-HCG mRNA in PBSCs eventually died of cancer, whereas those whose PBSCs were not contaminated with tumor cells survived without disease. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with elevated serum beta-HCG levels are likely to have PBSCs contaminated by tumor cells. Moreover, the prognosis of patients with tumor cells in the PBSCs is poor.
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