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National Cancer Institute®
Ultima Vez Modificado: 1 de enero del 2002
UI - 10976372
AU - Capron F; Fialip S; Guitard I; Lasser P; Billard V
TI - [Perianesthetic management of carcinoid syndrome: contribution of the bispectral EEG index]
SO - Ann Fr Anesth Reanim 2000 Aug;19(7):552-5
AD - Service d'anesthesie, institut Gustave-Roussy, Villejuif, France.
This case report described the perioperative management of a patient undergoing laparotomy for ileal carcinoid tumor with liver metastases and preoperative carcinoid syndrome. During surgery, bispectral index monitoring, combined with classical blood pressure and heart rate, allowed to discriminate hypertension related to the carcinoid syndrome, from hypertension reflecting an inadequate level of anaesthesia. Consequently, adequate treatment by a somastotatin analogue could be early administered.
UI - 11452829
AU - Di Luzio P; Casciani E; Masella M; De Carlo A; Cucci M; D'Amico G;
TI - Angelone A; Sargiacomo R [Carcinoid of the appendix. Clinical report of 3 cases and diagnostic and therapeutic considerations]
SO - Chir Ital 2001 May-Jun;53(3):409-14
AD - Unita Operativa di Chirurgia Generale, Ospedale S. Massimo, Penne, PE.
The Authors report three cases of carcinoid of the appendix and discuss the difficult preoperative diagnosis and the different therapeutic in the Surgery Unit of Penne Hospital, 424 appendicectomies were performed in 182 males and 242 females (age: 12-86 years; mean age: 39.9 years). In three cases the histological response was positive for carcinoid of the appendix. No postoperative mortality or morbility were reported. The authors analyze the biological peculiarities and the prognostic factors associated with appendiceal carcinoid tumours, such as tumour size and the lymphatic or vascular infiltration of the mesoappendix (and the corresponding more aggressive surgical treatments) and recommend an appropriate postoperative follow-up since synchronous or metachronous bowel carcinomas are likely to occur. Pharmacological therapy has also made important progress, with the possibility of administering compounds capable of interfering with tumour development and neoplastic growth.
UI - 11452407
AU - D'Aleo C; Lazzareschi I; Ruggiero A; Riccardi R
TI - Carcinoid tumors of the appendix in children: two case reports and review of the literature.
SO - Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2001 Jul-Aug;18(5):347-51
AD - Department of Paediatrics, Catholic University of Rome, Rome, Italy.
Carcinoid is the most common tumor of the appendix. Reported incidence in pediatric population is 1 per 100,000 per annum. Clinical presentation like acute appendicitis is frequent, but carcinoid tumor can be an incidental finding during surgical procedures other than appendectomy. Size and depth of invasion are important prognostic criteria and tumors larger than 2 cm metastasize more frequently than smaller ones. Simple appendectomy is considered appropriate treatment, while right colectomy is indicated in tumor bigger than 2 cm. The authors report 2 cases of carcinoid tumors of the appendix in children, smaller than 2 cm treated with appendectomy alone, and disease free at follow-up.
UI - 11464502
AU - Moneghini D; Fontana MG; Villanacci V; Salerni B
TI - [Multifocal gastric carcinoid associated with chronic type A atrophic gastritis. Analysis of 2 clinical cases]
SO - Ann Ital Chir 2001 Jan-Feb;72(1):89-92; discussion 92-3
AD - Cattedra di Chirurgia Generale, Universita degli Studi di Brescia.
Gastric carcinoid is a rare disease, representing less than 1% of gastric tumours and 11-41% of all gastrointestinal carcinoids. The recent Solcia's classification distinguishes three subtypes of these neoplasms, which show specific clinical and pathological features. Type one arises in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis (CGA), achlorhydria, hypergastrinemia and consequent enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia and dysplasia. Type two is related to Zollinger Ellison syndrome and type three represents the sporadic kind. We report two cases of multifocal gastric carcinoid associated to CGA, one of them with pernicious anemia. Both patients had aspecific abdominal symptoms; the diagnosis was suspected by upper endoscopy and confirmed by histological examination. Patients were submitted to total gastrectomy. They are still alive six years after surgery, without signs or symptoms of recurrences. Treatment of these tumours is controversial, because of their uncertain biological and clinical behaviour. Some Authors propose a conservative strategy (only endoscopic surveillance or removal); others stress importance of surgery (antrectomy or gastric resection). We discuss and underline the role of surgical therapy and the relevance of radical approach.
UI - 11479775
AU - Osaka M; Soga J; Suzuki T
TI - Statistical analysis of endocrine granule size in gastrointestinal carcinoids.
SO - Med Electron Microsc 2001 Mar;34(1):71-6
AD - Niigata Health Care Association, 11-1 Shinko-cho, Niigata 950-0965, Japan. email@example.com
Regarding the size of endocrine granules in endocrine neoplasms including carcinoids, most authors have reported only the range of granule diameters, and few studies on detailed morphometry of granule sizes have been documented. The statistically comparative study of endocrine granule sizes among such neoplasms, therefore, presented many difficulties. In the present study, we investigated more detailed findings on the endocrine granule sizes by using statistical analyses of diameters of numerous (n > 200 from each tumor) endocrine granules measured randomly throughout the cytoplasm in 18 gastrointestinal carcinoids. The measured data were analyzed statistically to obtain the histogram, distribution curve, mean value, and standard deviation of granule diameters in each carcinoid. It was disclosed by the analyses that all rectal carcinoids possessed uniformly small endocrine granules in contrast to gastric and duodenal carcinoids, which showed wide distribution of granule sizes, having significantly greater diameters than those in the rectal carcinoid series. The correlation between endocrine granule sizes and producing hormone(s) was, however, not confirmed.
UI - 11527175
AU - Pelizzo G; La Riccia A; Bouvier R; Chappuis JP; Franchella A
TI - Carcinoid tumors of the appendix in children.
SO - Pediatr Surg Int 2001 Jul;17(5-6):399-402
AD - Department of Pediatric Surgery, University of Ferrara, Italy.
We report ten cases of carcinoid tumor of the appendix observed in children from 1988 to 1996. The patients included six females and four males with an average age of 13 years at presentation. They were admitted after complaining of pain in the lower abdominal quadrant. In eight children who presented with symptoms of acute appendicitis, the tumor was located at the tip of the appendix. Diagnosis was performed after appendicectomy (AE) and pathologic examination, which revealed a tumor slightly under 1 cm in size. Two other children were admitted with clinical signs of peritonitis due to larger tumors measuring more than 2 cm on the base of the appendix. One patient underwent a cecectomy, the other a right hemicolectomy. For all patients follow-up was 3 years, and all recovered fully. According to these findings and a review of the literature, we suggest conservative surgical procedures in children. More than 70% of these tumors are localized at the tip of the appendix and represent an incidental pathologic finding during AE; AE alone is curative. Patients with a bulky tumor of the appendicular base measuring 2 cm and invading the serosa and mesoappendix without metastases may be treated with a cecectomy; ileocecal resection may be indicated in cases where the tumor has infiltrated tissue beyond the cecum with localized metastases and in patients with incomplete gross resection. Right hemicolectomy is questionable in this age group and restricted to rare conditions.
UI - 11572026
AU - Demartines N; von Flue MO; Harder FH
TI - Transanal endoscopic microsurgical excision of rectal tumors: indications and results.
SO - World J Surg 2001 Jul;25(7):870-5
AD - Department of Surgery, University Hospital of Basel, Spitalstrasse 21, CH-4031 Basel, Switzerland. firstname.lastname@example.org
Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) allows local excision of rectal tumors located 4 to 18 cm above the anal verge. The technique is not yet generally established because of the necessary special instrumentation and tools, the unusual technical aspects of the approach, and the stringent patient selection criteria. The aim of this prospective, descriptive study was to analyze the currently accepted indications for TEM and to evaluate the use of this procedure for treating rectal cancer. Over a 4-year period 50 patients aged 31 to 86 years (mean 64 years) underwent TEM for treatment of rectal tumors located 12 cm above the anal verge (range 4-18 cm). The local complication rate was 4%. Altogether, 76% of lesions were benign, and 24% were T1 and T2 tumors. Of 12 cancer cases, 4 required reoperation by total mesorectal resection; the other 8 are currently under follow-up management. Over the follow-up period of 30.6 months (range 11-54 months) the recurrence rate of T1 tumors was 8.3%. TEM is a minimally invasive surgical technique that may benefit a small, specific population of patients with rectal tumors. Compared with conventional transanal resection, TEM provides superior exposure of tumors higher up in the rectum (i.e., up to 18 cm from the anal verge). The greater precision of resection combined with low morbidity (10%, relative to that of anterior resection) and short duration of hospitalization (5.5 days) make this technique a reliable and in some cases more effective surgical approach than laparotomy and low anterior resection.
UI - 11602899
AU - Yao KA; Talamonti MS; Nemcek A; Angelos P; Chrisman H; Skarda J; Benson
TI - AB; Rao S; Joehl RJ Indications and results of liver resection and hepatic chemoembolization for metastatic gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors.
SO - Surgery 2001 Oct;130(4):677-82; discussion 682-5
AD - Department of Surgery, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Ill 60611, USA.
BACKGROUND: We reviewed 36 patients with liver metastases from islet cell tumors of the pancreas (n = 18) and carcinoid tumors (n = 18) who were treated with surgical resection (n = 16) or hepatic chemoembolization (n = 20). METHODS: All resections were complete and included 4 lobectomies, 6 segmental resections, and 6 wedge resections. There were no operative deaths. RESULTS: Median survival has not yet been reached, and the actuarial 5-year survival rate is 70%. Prognostic variables associated with improved disease-free survival included prior resection of the primary tumor and 4 or fewer metastases resected (P <.05). With an average of 3 chemoembolization procedures per patient, 17 of 20 patients (90%) demonstrated either a significant radiographic response (n = 5), stabilization of tumor mass (n = 2), or improvement of clinical symptoms (n = 10). Factors related to a sustained response (more then 1 year) included surgical resection of the primary tumor, 4 or more chemoembolization procedures, and liver metastases of 5 cm or smaller. Median survival after treatment was 32 months (range, 7-63 months), and the actuarial 5-year survival rate was 40%. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical resection of metastatic neuroendocrine tumors provides the best chance for extended survival. Chemoembolization effectively improves clinical symptoms and, in selected patients, may provide sustained tumor control.
UI - 11679943
AU - Cai YC; Banner B; Glickman J; Odze RD
TI - Cytokeratin 7 and 20 and thyroid transcription factor 1 can help distinguish pulmonary from gastrointestinal carcinoid and pancreatic endocrine tumors.
SO - Hum Pathol 2001 Oct;32(10):1087-93
AD - Department of Pathology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
Expression of cytokeratin (CK) 7 and 20 is commonly used to help distinguish adenocarcinomas from different sites. Thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) is a 38-kd protein, located primarily in the nucleus of type 2 pneumocytes and clara cells. TTF-1 has been shown to be present in a variety of lung and thyroid tumors and in pulmonary small-cell carcinomas. Carcinoid tumors from the lung and the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are histologically similar and thus are difficult to differentiate from each other based on histologic criteria. Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PET) have a similar histologic appearance to these other tumors. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of differentiating these 3 groups of tumors by their expression of CK7, CK20, and TTF-1. Routinely processed paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 62 carcinoid tumors (lung, 16; gastrointestinal [GI] tract, 46) and 12 PETs were immunohistochemically stained for CK7, CK20, and TTF-1. The degree of expression in each tumor was graded as 1+ (1% to 10% of cells positive), 2+ (11% to 25%), 3+ (26% to 50%), and 4+ (>50%). The data were compared between tumor types and between carcinoid tumors from the various locations in the GI tract (stomach, 8; small intestine, 19; large intestine, 17; appendix, 2). CK7 was expressed in 10 (63%) of 16 pulmonary carcinoid tumors and only 5 (11%) of 46 GI carcinoid tumors (P <.001). Pancreatic endocrine tumors showed CK7 positivity in 6 (50%) of 12 cases, which was similar to the findings in lung carcinoids and significantly higher than in GI carcinoids (P <.01). CK20 was expressed in 0 (0%) of 16 pulmonary carcinoid tumors, in contrast to 24% and 33% of GI carcinoid tumors (P <.05) and PETs (P <.05), respectively. TTF-1 expression was highly specific for pulmonary carcinoid tumors. This peptide was present in 11 (69%) of 16 pulmonary carcinoid tumors and in only 1 (2%) of 46 and 0 (0%) of 12 GI carcinoid tumors (P <.001) and PETs (P <.001), respectively. A CK7(+)/CK20(-)/TTF-1(+) immunopanel result was moderately sensitive (sensitivity, 50%), and highly specific (specificity, 100%), for a diagnosis of pulmonary carcinoid tumor. CK7, CK20, and TTF-1 did not differ significantly between carcinoid tumors located in different sites of the GI tract. However, a trend was observed toward a lower prevalence of CK20 positivity in gastric tumors (P =.06) than in GI carcinoid tumors from the small intestine, colon, or appendix. Expression of CK7 and CK20, and particularly TTF-1, may be useful in distinguishing pulmonary from GI carcinoid tumors and PETs, especially when evaluated as a panel of markers. TTF-1 is highly specific for pulmonary carcinoid tumors. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company
UI - 11679944
AU - Canavese G; Azzoni C; Pizzi S; Corleto VD; Pasquali C; Davoli C; Crafa
TI - P; Delle Fave G; Bordi C p27: a potential main inhibitor of cell proliferation in digestive endocrine tumors but not a marker of benign behavior.
SO - Hum Pathol 2001 Oct;32(10):1094-101
AD - Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Section of Pathological Anatomy, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.
The immunohistochemical expression of the inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases p21 and p27 was investigated in 109 endocrine tumors of the pancreas and gastrointestinal tract and compared with that of Ki67 and p53. p21 was found to be scarcely expressed without significant differences between benign and malignant or between differentiated and undifferentiated tumors. This suggests no relationship between changes in p21 levels and clinical behavior in these endocrine tumors. p27 was found to be highly expressed in differentiated neoplasms and proved to be inversely related to Ki67 labeling (P =.02), which was usually low. These data indicate that p27 may have an important inhibiting role on the low proliferation rate of the tumors. Moreover, the protein may have a role in the resistance of differentiated endocrine tumors to chemotherapeutic agents. p27 high-expressor neoplasms were frequent in either benign (70.6%) or malignant (81.4%) differentiated tumors, thus not allowing the use of this protein for the differential diagnosis of malignant neoplasms as suggested for endocrine tumors of parathyroid and pituitary. Poorly differentiated endocrine carcinomas, which differred from the differentiated tumors for their very high Ki67 levels and frequent p53 expression, showed low or absent p21 and p27 in most cases. Classical midgut carcinoids were characterized by a sharp discrepancy between malignant behavior and very bland proliferative pattern, with Ki67 and p27 expressions similar to that of benign tumors. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company
UI - 11702516
AU - Bailey D; Robustelli BA; Mayer J; Andrews J
TI - Metastatic neuroendocrine tumor presenting as spinal cord compression--a case report and brief comment.
SO - Conn Med 2001 Oct;65(10):585-6
AD - Yale University School of Medicine, Norwalk Hospital, USA.
Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors are derived from the diffuse neuroendocrine system of the gastrointestinal tract which is composed of amine and acid producing cells with different hormonal profiles, depending on the site of origin. The tumors they produce can be divided into carcinoid tumors and pancreatic endocrine tumors. We believe this to be only the fourth case in the literature of a patient presenting with cord compression as a result of a metastatic neuroendocrine tumor (MEDLINE 1966-2000).
UI - 11702501
AU - Compere C; Geronooz I; Croes F; Lambinet N; Krzesinski JM; Soyeur D;
TI - Honore P [Clinical case of the month. Carcinoid syndrome due to a small intestine secreting tumor with a cardiopathy]
SO - Rev Med Liege 2001 Sep;56(9):599-606
AD - Service de Cardiologie, Universite de Liege.
Uncommon but classically described, intestinal carcinoid tumors represent a variety of neuroendocrine tumors. Able to secrete amines and hormones, they can produce characteristic symptoms called "carcinoid syndrome". A cardiopathy is sometimes associated with the disease and carries a high risk of mortality and morbidity.
UI - 11725374
AU - Kinova S; Duris I; Kovacova E; Stvrtina S; Galbavy S; Makaiova I
TI - Malignant carcinoid in two brothers.
SO - Bratisl Lek Listy 2001;102(5):231-4
AD - Ist Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia. email@example.com
Familial occurrence of malignant carcinoid is rare (about 3%). Authors describe occurrence of the malignant carcinoid in two brothers. In the older one the diagnosis was estimated in 1991. He had multiple intestinal carcinoid tumor with multiple liver metastases histological type III by Soga classification. Patient is intermittently treated with somatostatin analogue--lanreotid and with interferon alfa. By this therapy the disease is stabile. In the younger of brothers the diagnosis was estimated in 1999. The disease had rapid progression and in ten months patient died despite of the therapy. Definitive diagnosis was a malignant neuroendocrine tumor of pancreas-mixed low differentiated carcinoid with calcitonin overproduction. (Fig. 4, Ref. 15.)
UI - 11727266
AU - Bornstein-Quevedo L; Gamboa-Dominguez A
TI - Carcinoid tumors of the duodenum and ampulla of vater: a clinicomorphologic, immunohistochemical, and cell kinetic comparison.
SO - Hum Pathol 2001 Nov;32(11):1252-6
AD - Department of Pathology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencia Medicas y Nutricion, Salvador Zubiran, Mexico City, Mexico.
Carcinoid tumors of the ampulla of Vater (ACs) differ from duodenal carcinoid tumors (DCs). A search for AC and DC was made between 1980 and 2000. The clinicopathologic features and follow-up were assessed. Immunohistochemistry for panneuroendocrine markers, hormone products, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Ki- 67, p21(cip1), and p27(kip1) were performed. A blind proliferative index counting 500 cells was made. Differences were contrasted using the Fisher exact and 2-sided Student t test. Five ACs and 8 DCs were identified in 9 women and 4 men with median ages of 59 and 64 years and mean tumor diameters of 1.6 and 1.85 cm, respectively. All patients with AC presented jaundice, and most patients with DC were asymptomatic (P = .047). Metastases were present in 4 ACs and 1 DC (P =.03). Tumor cells expressed synaptophysin and chromogranin in 60% of ACs and in 100% and 87% of DCs. Gastrin was expressed in 75% of DCs and 20% of ACs (P < .05). The mean value for PCNA index was 4.0% in ACs and 3.2% in DCs, and mean values for Ki-67 were 12.2% and 10.2%, respectively (P = NS). Expression of p21(cip1) and p27(kip1) was observed in 40% of ACs and 37.5% and 12.5% of DCs. Three of 5 patients with AC died of the disease within an average of 11 months, and none of the patients with DC had died at 103 months of follow-up. The more aggressive behavior of ACs is not associated with higher proliferative indices or with different expression of cell cycle inhibitors. Copyright 2001 by W.B. Saunders Company
UI - 11395824
AU - Araki Y; Isomoto H; Shirouzu K
TI - Clinical efficacy of video-assisted gasless transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) for rectal carcinoid tumor.
SO - Surg Endosc 2001 Apr;15(4):402-4
AD - Department of Surgery, Kurume University School of Medicine, 67 Asahi, Kurume 830-0011, Japan.
BACKGROUND: We used video-assisted gasless transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) to evaluate 12 consecutive patients for carcinoid tumor with pathologically typical features in the proximal rectum. The study parameters included feasibility, results and final outcome. METHODS: A scope with an optical angle of 25 and a 7-mm diameter was used for TEM. The carcinoid tumor was resected in full thickness. Primary closure was accomplished using a running suture of 3-0 braided absorbable suture. RESULTS: The tumor in these patients was <15 mm in diameter. It was localized within the submucosal layer on the oral side from the peritoneal reflection and unreachable via Park's transanal approach. The mean duration of the operation was 63 min. The postoperative course in all patients was free from significant complications, and all patients were discharged within 1 week. None of the patients had postoperative pain or required sedatives. CONCLUSION: Video-assisted gasless TEM is a simple and minimally invasive procedure to treat benign carcinoid tumors in the proximal rectum.
UI - 11699282
AU - Bottger T
TI - [Surgical therapy of carcinoid tumors of the gastrointestinal tract]
SO - Zentralbl Chir 2001 Sep;126(9):676-81
AD - Klinik und Poliklinik fur Allgemein- und Abdominalchirurgie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitat Mainz.
More than 70% of all carcinoids are localized in the gastrointestinal tract. Carcinoids of the upper, middle and lower intestines have to be distinguished ontogenetically. The classification according to Capella takes into account the size of the tumor (< 0.9 cm; 1-2 cm; > 2 cm), the grade of invasion of other structures, the grade of angioinvasion, the biologic behaviour, the grade of differentiation and the hormonal activity of the tumor. A carcinoid-syndrome is rarely found. Carcinoids of the small intestine occur multiple in 30-50% and in 20-30% a second malignant tumor is seen. In carcinoids of the colon this percentage is even higher (25-40%). The therapy of carcinoids depends on the size of the tumor and consecutively on the risk of metastasis. A local excision or non-oncologic radical operative procedure is justified in carcinoids smaller than 1 cm. In tumors 1-2 cm in size an individual decision has to be made. Larger tumors should be operated according to oncologic standards. Palliative resections, even of the liver, may be indicated to relieve the symptoms of a carcinoid-syndrome or, to prevent ileus or bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract. The prognosis of gastrointestinal carcinoids is heterogenous: The five-year-survival-rate of appendix-carcinoids is 85.9% over all stages. In rectal carcinoids this rate amounts to 72.2%, in carcinoids of the small intestines to 55.4% and in colon-carcinoids to 41.6%. Carcinoids of the stomach have a five-year-survival-rate of 64.3% in the absence of metastases. Within carcinoids of the stomach type III-tumors have the worst prognosis with a median survival time of 6.5 months.
UI - 11699283
AU - Engelbach M; Heusel CP; Kriegsmann J; Both S; Walgenbach S
TI - [Drug therapy of carcinoids of the gastrointestinal tract]
SO - Zentralbl Chir 2001 Sep;126(9):682-5
AD - Klinik und Poliklinik Innere Medizin, Schwerpunkt Endokrinologie und Stoffwechselerkrankungen, Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitat, Mainz.
Carcinoid tumors are rare and slowly growing neuroendocrine tumors of the foregut, midgut and hindgut. Drug therapy is of special importance in patients with inoperable metastasising disease. This palliative therapy is aimed at reduction of the hormone-dependent symptoms and inhibition of tumor growth. Somatostatin analogues, alpha-interferon and various chemotherapeutic agents are used for this purpose. Drug therapy can be supplemented by surgical and radiological intervention through interdisciplinary cooperation of the surgeon, radiologist, endocrinologist and gastroenterologist.
UI - 11484252
AU - Georgiev Ch; Damianov D; Keranov T; Todorov T; Stoeva P; Sivchev S;
TI - Boshnakova P [Gelatinoform carcinoma of the cecum--a case report]
SO - Khirurgiia (Sofiia) 1999;55(6):50-2
UI - 11462912
AU - Sokmensuer C; Gedikoglu G; Uzunalimoglu B
TI - Importance of proliferation markers in gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors: a clinicopathologic study.
SO - Hepatogastroenterology 2001 May-Jun;48(39):720-3
AD - Department of Pathology, Medical Faculty of Hacettepe University, Ankara 06100, Turkey. firstname.lastname@example.org
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Carcinoid tumors are common tumors in the gastrointestinal tract. Certain criteria such as the depth of invasion, the localization, the tumor size, the mitotic index and the pattern of ploidy are used to determine the potential biological behavior of these tumors some of which might be malignant. The goal of this study was to assess the prognostic significance of proliferation markers (Ki67 and PCNA) in carcinoid tumors by using immunohistochemistry. METHODOLOGY: An immunostaining in 37 carcinoid tumors arising in various locations of the gastrointestinal tract was performed. The best stained area was selected and 1000 neoplastic cells were counted in order to determine the proliferation index in each case. RESULTS: The results of proliferation index were compared with the depth of invasion, the embryologic type, the tumor size, the presence of metastases and disease-free survival by using statistical methods. The Ki67 tumor proliferation index in the tumors > 2.1 cm was significantly different from the tumors < or = 2 cm (P = 0.032). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of significant correlation between Ki67 positivity and the tumor size might suggest that Ki67 antibody can be useful for the determination of potential behavior of gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors.
UI - 11776836
AU - Xu H; Li X; He S
TI - [Immunohistochemistry and DNA content of gastro-intestinal carcinoid]
SO - Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi 1999 May;21(3):202-4
AD - Department of Pathology, Shekou Hospital, Shekou 518067.
OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between clinical pathology and antigen expression and DNA content of gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors. METHODS: Fifty-two cases of paraffin-embedded gastrointestinal carcinoid specimens were collected. According to Gould's criteria, there were 20 cases of typical carcinoid, 20 cases of atypical carcinoid and 12 cases of undifferentiated carcinoid. Ten different kinds of antigen were examined by immunohistochemical staining and DNA contents by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Calcitonin (CT), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) expression was significantly reduced in typical carcionoid compared to that in other two types of carcionoid. Their expression was more marked in progression than in early stage of the disease. VIP expression was significantly higher in patients with than without lymph node metastases. Cellular DNA analysis showed significant difference between the typical and the other two types of carcinoid. Tumors with expression of VIP and CEA were mostly aneuploid. CONCLUSION: To study expression of relevant antigens in gastrointestinal carcinoid in relation to histological type and cellular DNA content helps determine its biologic behavior and prognosis.
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