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National Cancer Institute®
Ultima Vez Modificado: 1 de agosto del 2002
UI - 10668068
AU - Jimenez F; Demaria JL; Ahumada CA
TI - [Cancer of the esophagus and stomach: 3-year evaluation]
SO - Acta Gastroenterol Latinoam 1999;29(5):319-23
AD - Seccion gastroenterologia, Hospital Dr. Jose Maria Cullen, Santa Fe, Argentina. firstname.lastname@example.org
Esophagus cancer has a very bad pathological prognosis. Risk factors considered are: smoking consumption and deficiency of vitamins A and C. The mortality rates of cancer of the stomach vary notably according to geographic region. Factors such as genetics, races, smoking, socioeconomic conditions are some of stomach cancer development. 646 symptomatic patients were studied in the gastroenterology unit at. J.M. Cullen hospital. Histopathologically, 22 (3.3%) cancer of the esophagus and 13 (2%) cancers of stomach were detected. All esophagus cancers were squamous cells; 82% were males and 18% females. 50% were located on the middle third zone. 92.3% of stomach cancers were adenocarcinoma; 83% were males and 17% females. A 50.8% were located in corporo-fundic zone. All the cancers both of the esophagus as well as of the stomach, were in the advanced phase. The cancer of esophagus has appeared most frequently among cancers of the tract in our hospital, with significant difference among province and national registers.
UI - 12046061
AU - Hou J; Lin PZ; Chen ZF; Ding ZW; Li SS; Men FS; Guo LP; He YT; Qiao CY;
TI - Guo CL; Duan JP; Wen DG Field population-based blocking treatment of esophageal epithelia dysplasia.
SO - World J Gastroenterol 2002 Jun;8(3):418-22
AD - Hebei Cancer Institute, Jiankanglu 5, Shijiazhuang 050011, China.
AIM:To confirm the value of blocking treatment by zenshengping (ZSP), a Chinese herb composite, and Riboflavin for esophageal epithelia dysplasia cases screened out in high risk area in northern china by exfoliative balloon cytology (EBC), so to reduce the incidence rate of esophageal cancer(EC). METHODS: Esophageal epithelium dysplasia cases including mind esophageal epithelium dysplasia (MEED), stage one severe esophageal epithelium dysplasia (SEED I), and stage two severe esophageal epithelium dysplasia (SEED II) were screened out from people aged 40 years and older in the high risk area of Chixian. These cases were randomly divided into a treatment and control group. Subjects in the treatment and control groups took ZSP, riboflavin, and placebo daily for three years. EC cases registered by cancer registry and identified by EBC re-screening in the treatment and control groups were used to calculate incidence and blocking rates to demonstrate the effects of blocking medication. RESULTS: It was found that 31.92% and 24.15% of people aged 40 years and older in Cixian could been diagnosed as MEED and SEED cases. The severity of dysplasia increased with age. ZSP had blocked EC occurrence by 47.79% after 3 year medication among the SEED cases. CONCLUSION: ZSP can block the development from SEED I and SEED II to EC by 47.79%. Efforts should be made to screen and treat dysplasia cases in people aged 40 years and older in high risk areas to reduce the mortality figures.
UI - 12115489
AU - Vizcaino AP; Moreno V; Lambert R; Parkin DM
TI - Time trends incidence of both major histologic types of esophageal carcinomas in selected countries, 1973-1995.
SO - Int J Cancer 2002 Jun 20;99(6):860-8
AD - Unit of Descriptive Epidemiology, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France. email@example.com
The purpose of our study was to examine the incidence patterns of 2 major histologic types of esophageal cancer, in selected countries world-wide and to identify components of birth cohort, period and age as determinants of observed time trends using regression modeling. The roles of temporal changes in specification of histology of tumors and of classification of cancers at the gastroesophageal junction as esophageal or gastric in origin were taken into consideration. In all, 56,426 esophageal cancer cases were included. The results indicate that the incidence rate of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus has been relatively stable in most of the countries analyzed, although increasing trends were observed in Denmark and the Netherlands (Eindhoven) among men and in Canada, Scotland and Switzerland among women. There was a significant increase in the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinomas in both sexes in the United States (among whites and blacks), Canada and South Australia and in 6 European countries (Scotland, Denmark, Iceland, Finland, Sweden and Norway). In France the increase was limited to men and in Switzerland the increase was observed only in women. Modeling was unable to distinguish which trends were the results of changes in risk between generations (as cohort effects), or changes in all age groups simultaneously (as a period effect). Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
UI - 12080324
AU - Rumi MA; Sato H; Ishihara S; Ortega C; Kadowaki Y; Kinoshita Y
TI - Growth inhibition of esophageal squamous carcinoma cells by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligands.
SO - J Lab Clin Med 2002 Jul;140(1):17-26
AD - Second Department of Internal Medicine, Shimane Medical University, Izumo, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
The growth of human cancer cells expressing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) has been reported to be inhibited by PPAR-gamma ligands. In esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma cell lines T.T, T.Tn, and EC-GI-10, we detected expression of PPAR-gamma and investigated the effects of PPAR-gamma ligands on these cell lines in vitro with the use of troglitazone, pioglitazone, and 15d-PGJ2. Marked growth inhibition by the PPAR-gamma ligands was observed in all cases. The growth-inhibitory effect was evidenced by a dose-dependent inhibition of deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis and was associated with altered cell-cycle progression manifesting G1 arrest. Cell-cycle arrest in T.Tn cells induced by troglitazone could be correlated with an increased level of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1), p21(Cip1/Waf1), and p18(Ink4c). Moreover, troglitazone treatment increased the expression of interleukin-1 alpha, a multifunctional cytokine implicated in antitumor immunity. These findings suggest that troglitazone and other PPAR-gamma ligands have adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapeutic potentials in esophageal cancer.
UI - 12127403
AU - Ihara Y; Kato Y; Bando T; Yamagishi F; Minamimura T; Sakamoto T; Tsukada
TI - K; Isobe M Allelic imbalance of 14q32 in esophageal carcinoma.
SO - Cancer Genet Cytogenet 2002 Jun;135(2):177-81
AD - The Second Department of Surgery, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University School of Medicine, Toyama, Japan. email@example.com
It has been demonstrated that the accumulation of alterations in several oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes plays a role in the initiation and progression of esophageal carcinoma. However, to our knowledge, very few studies have described the molecular genetic changes of chromosome arm 14q in esophageal carcinoma. In this study, we examined 35 primary esophageal carcinomas for allelic imbalance on 14q32. Analysis of four polymorphic microsatellite markers identified 13 (37%) tumors exhibiting allelic imbalance on 14q32 in at least one locus. In particular, the allelic imbalance of the D14S267 marker that has been reported in various tumors as having a high frequency of deletion was observed in 10 of 26 informative cases (38.5%). The commonly deleted regions were delineated by markers D14S65 and D14S250 on 14q32. In regard to the macroscopic features of tumor, the 14q allelic imbalance rate of protruding type tumors was higher than that of the ulcerative type. These data suggest that potential suppressor loci on 14q32 are related to the development and progression of esophageal carcinoma.
UI - 12066233
AU - Giovagnoni A; Valeri G; Ferrara C
TI - MRI of esophageal cancer.
SO - Abdom Imaging 2002 Jul-Aug;27(4):361-6
AD - Department of Radiology, MR Center F. Angelini, University of Ancona, Ospedale Torrette, Via Conca, 60020 Torrette, Ancona, Italy.
UI - 12107384
AU - Drudi FM; Trippa F; Cascone F; Righi A; Iascone C; Ricci P; David V;
TI - Passariello R Esophagogram and CT vs endoscopic and surgical specimens in the diagnosis of esophageal carcinoma.
SO - Radiol Med (Torino) 2002 Apr;103(4):344-52
AD - Istituto di Radiologia, Universita degli Studi di Roma La Sapienza, Policlinico Umberto I, Rome, Italy. FrancescoM.Drudi@uniromal.it
PURPOSE: Aim of our study was to assess the accuracy of diagnostic imaging in establishing site, morphology and size of the neoplasm comparing surgical specimens or endoscopic examination with esophagograms and CT in patients with esophageal cancer. CT accuracy in defining TNM staging was also evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 1993 to 2000 we examined 39 patients with esophageal cancer: 30 males (77%) and 9 females (23%), age range 41-85 years. All patients underwent esophagogram, digestive endoscopy, and chest and abdominal CT. In 22 patients who underwent surgery, we evaluated the correlation between diagnostic imaging and surgical specimens. Patients were divided into 3 groups on the basis of discrepancy between pathological and radiological measurements: =/<1 cm (considered as no discrepancy); 1 to 3 cm; > 3 cm. RESULTS: Esophagogram identified neoplasm in 38 patients out of 39, while CT identified neoplasm in all patients. Location and morphology of the neoplasm established at endoscopy were confirmed in all patients. Lesion length measured at esophagogram corresponded to length of surgical specimens in 13 of the 22 surgically treated patients (59%). In this group there was a dominance of polypoid and stenotic tumor forms. In the remaining 9 cases there was a dominance of ulcerative tumor forms. CT measurement corresponded in 7 patients (32%) with a dominance of polypoid and stenotic tumor forms. T staging performed with CT corresponded to surgical specimens in 12 patients (54%, T3-T4). N staging correlated in 19 patients (86%). CT identified distant metastases in 6 patients (27%). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Our study proves a high sensitivity of esophagogram and CT in the diagnosis of esophageal carcinoma. Esophagogram presented a higher accuracy in establishing tumor length (59% of cases, as compared to CT 32%). Tumor morphology influenced the accuracy of the esophagogram, and highest accuracy was obtained in polypoid and stenotic tumors. T staging performed with CT corresponded to surgical specimens in advanced stages (T3-T4), while accuracy was poorer in smaller superficial lesions (T1-T2) due to the inability of CT to differentiate the layers of the esophageal wall. N understaging in 14% of cases did not modify surgical management. CT presented a high sensitivity in the identification of loco-regional lymph nodes and identified distant metastases in 6 patients. In conclusion, these techniques are accurate and non-invasive and their role in establishing the correct management is therefore important.
UI - 1415098
AU - Kadakia SC; Parker A; Canales L
TI - Metastatic tumors to the upper gastrointestinal tract: endoscopic experience.
SO - Am J Gastroenterol 1992 Oct;87(10):1418-23
AD - Department of Medicine, Brooke Army Medical Center, San Antonio 78234-6200.
Metastatic tumors to the upper gastrointestinal tract were identified by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in 14 patients. Malignant melanoma, breast cancer, and lung cancer were the most common primary cancers in four, three, and three patients, respectively. Osteogenic sarcoma, renal cell carcinoma, Meckel cell carcinoma of the skin, and germ-cell tumor were the primary cancer in the remaining four. The esophagus was involved in three patients, the stomach in 13, duodenum in four, and papilla of Vater in one. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding and anemia were the most common presenting features. There was correlation between symptoms and endoscopic findings in all patients. Involvement of gastrointestinal tract at endoscopy was the initial and only evidence of metastases in all patients without evidence of metastases elsewhere, as evidenced by other diagnostic tests in any of these patients. Endoscopic biopsies and/or brush cytology provided histologic diagnosis in all 14 patients. The endoscopic and nonendoscopic literature regarding metastases to the upper gastrointestinal tract is reviewed.
UI - 8147387
AU - Ono H; Takahashi A; Ogoshi S; Furihata M; Ohtsuki Y
TI - Relationship between H-ras p21 product and p53 protein or high-risk human papillomaviruses in esophageal cancer from Kochi, Japan.
SO - Am J Gastroenterol 1994 Apr;89(4):646-7
UI - 11948123
AU - Hu N; Li G; Li WJ; Wang C; Goldstein AM; Tang ZZ; Roth MJ; Dawsey SM;
TI - Huang J; Wang QH; Ding T; Giffen C; Taylor PR; Emmert-Buck MR Infrequent mutation in the BRCA2 gene in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
SO - Clin Cancer Res 2002 Apr;8(4):1121-6
AD - National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.
PURPOSE: Previous studies have shown a high rate of allelic loss in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in the vicinity of the BRCA2 gene. We aimed to assess whether the tumor suppressor gene BRCA2 was the inactivation target for allelic loss observed on chromosome 13q in ESCC. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We examined the entire coding sequence of the BRCA2 gene for mutations using single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing in 56 ESCC patients from Shanxi, China. RESULTS: Eight mutations were identified in 5 patients (9%), including 3 with germ-line mutations and 2 with only somatic mutations. However, all but 1 of the mutations were missense or silent changes and of unknown significance. Evidence for potential biallelic inactivation was seen in only 4 (7%) cases. CONCLUSIONS: BRCA2 mutations occur in ESCC but are infrequent and of unknown consequence. The putative target tumor suppressor gene corresponding to the high rate of chromosome 13q allelic loss remains unknown.
UI - 12022988
AU - Brabender J; Lord RV; Wickramasinghe K; Metzger R; Schneider PM; Park
TI - JM; Holscher AH; DeMeester TR; Danenberg KD; Danenberg PV Glutathione S-transferase-pi expression is downregulated in patients with Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma.
SO - J Gastrointest Surg 2002 May-Jun;6(3):359-67
AD - Department of Biochemistry, USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90033, USA.
The glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a family of enzymes that play an important role in the prevention of cancer by detoxifying numerous potentially carcinogenic compounds. GSTs conjugate reduced glutathione to a variety of electrophilic and hydrophobic compounds, converting them into more soluble, more easily excretable compounds. Decreased glutathione S-transferase-pi (GSTPI) enzyme activity has been reported in Barrett's esophagus, and an inverse correlation was demonstrated between GST enzyme activity and tumor incidence in the gastrointestinal tract, but the role of GSTPI messengerRNA (mRNA) expression in Barrett's esophagus and associated adenocarcinomas is uncertain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of GSTPI mRNA and protein expression in the development and progression of the Barrett's metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence, and to investigate the potential of GSTPI quantitation as a biomarker in the clinical management of this disease. GSTPI mRNA expression levels, in relation to the housekeeping gene beta-actin, were analyzed using a quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction method (TaqMan) in 111 specimens from 19 patients with Barrett's esophagus without carcinoma (BE group), 21 patients with Barrett's-associated adenocarcinoma (EA group), and a control group of 10 patients without evidence of Barrett's esophagus or chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease. GSTPI mRNA expression was detectable in all 111 samples investigated. Analyzed according to histopathologic group, the median GSTPI mRNA expression was highest in normal squamous esophagus epithelium, intermediate in Barrett's esophagus, and lowest in adenocarcinoma tissues (P < 0.001). The median GSTPI expression was significantly decreased in Barrett's esophagus tissues compared to matching normal squamous esophagus from either the BE group (P = 0.001) or the EA group (P = 0.023). GSTPI expression levels in adenocarcinoma tissues were decreased compared to matching normal esophagus tissues from the patients with adenocarcinoma (P = 0.011). Furthermore, GSTPI mRNA expression values were significantly different between metaplastic, dysplastic, and adenocarcinoma tissues (P = 0.026). GSTPI expression levels were also significantly lower in histologically normal squamous esophagus tissues from patients with cancer (EA group) compared to both normal esophagus tissues from patients without cancer (BE group; P = 0.007) and normal esophagus tissues from the control group with no esophageal abnormality (P = 0.002). GSTPI protein expression was generally highest in the basal layer of normal squamous esophagus epithelium and lowest in adenocarcinoma cells, with Barrett's cells showing intermediate staining intensity. Our results show that downregulation of GSTPI expression is an early event in the development of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Loss of GSTPI expression may have an important role in the development and progression of this disease.
UI - 12113032
AU - Blazeby JM; Vickery CW
TI - Quality of life in patients with cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract.
SO - Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2001 Aug;1(2):269-76
AD - University Division of Surgery, Bristol Royal Infirmary, Bristol, BS2 8HW, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
Accurate assessment of health-related quality of life in patients with upper gastrointestinal cancers is essential to help determine treatment strategies. Questionnaires may be used to screen for physical and psychosocial morbidity, to evaluate new therapies and there is accumulating evidence to suggest that quality of life scores have prognostic value. There are well validated generic measures of quality of life suitable to use in patients with cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract, but only two systems (EORTC QLQ-C30 and the FACT-G) have site-specific modules that have been constructed for this patient group. The future use of computer-assisted techniques to collect, analyze and interpret quality of life data will enable the implementation of quality of life results in clinical practice.
UI - 11110971
AU - Xing D; Tan W; Song N; Lin D
TI - [Genetic polymorphism in hOGG1 and susceptibility to esophageal cancer in Chinese]
SO - Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi 2000 Dec;17(6):377-80
AD - Cancer Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 100021 P.R.China.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between Ser326Cys polymorphism in hOGG1 gene, which is involved in the repair of 8-hydroxyguanine in damaged DNA, and investigate the risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus in Chinese. METHODS: Ser326Cys polymorphism in hOGG1 gene was determined by PCR-SSCP approach among 201 normal controls and 196 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus. The association between this genetic polymorphism and the risk of the cancer was examined by a multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The Cys/Cys genotype of hOGG1 was found in 21.4% of patients with the cancer and in 13.4% of controls (P<0.05). Homozygosity for the Cys/Cys genotype significantly increased the risk of developing esophageal cancer, with the odds ratio adjusted for age, sex and smoking being 1.9(95% CI 1.3-2.6). Smoking also significantly increased esophageal cancer risk in this case-control study (adjusted OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.7- 3.9). No interaction between smoking and Cys/Cys genotype was observed for the risk of esophageal cancer. CONCLUSION: Polymorphism of hOGG1 Ser326Cys may play a role in esophageal carcinogenesis.
UI - 11307145
AU - Xing DY; Tan W; Song N; Lin DX
TI - Ser326Cys polymorphism in hOGG1 gene and risk of esophageal cancer in a Chinese population.
SO - Int J Cancer 2001 May 20;95(3):140-3
AD - Department of Etiology and Carcinogenesis, Cancer Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100021, China.
Ser326Cys polymorphism in the hOGG1 gene, which is involved in the repair of 8-hydroxyguanine in oxidatively damaged DNA, has been identified and the variant genotype appears to be related to susceptibility to certain cancers. We investigated the association between Ser326Cys polymorphism and squamous-cell carcinoma of the esophagus among a Chinese population. hOGG1 gene polymorphism was detected by PCR-based single-strand conformation polymorphism and DNA sequencing among 201 normal controls and 196 patients with esophageal cancer from Linxian, China, a high-risk area for the disease. The association between this genetic polymorphism and risk of the cancer was examined by a multivariate analysis. We found that the distribution of hOGG1 Ser326Cys genotypes among controls (Ser/Ser, 33.8%; Ser/Cys, 52.8%; and Cys/Cys, 13.4%) was significantly different from that among esophageal cancer cases (39.8%, 38.8% and 21.4%, respectively) (p < 0.05). Homozygosity for the Cys/Cys genotype significantly increased the risk of developing esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma, with the odds ratio (OR) adjusted for age, sex and smoking being 1.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-2.6). Although smoking alone also significantly increased esophageal cancer risk in this case-control study (adjusted OR = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.7-3.9), no significant interaction between smoking and the Cys/Cys genotype was observed in terms of risk. Our results suggest that the hOGG1 326Cys allele might play a role in the carcinogenesis of the esophagus. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
UI - 11952611
AU - Spence GM; McAllister I; Graham AN; McGuigan JA
TI - Effect of multimodality therapy on ciculating vascular endothelial growth factor levels in patients with oesophagal cancer.
SO - Br J Surg 2002 Apr;89(4):495-6; discussion 496
UI - 11992556
AU - Takezaki T; Gao CM; Wu JZ; Li ZY; Wang JD; Ding JH; Liu YT; Hu X; Xu TL;
TI - Tajima K; Sugimura H hOGG1 Ser(326)Cys polymorphism and modification by environmental factors of stomach cancer risk in Chinese.
SO - Int J Cancer 2002 Jun 1;99(4):624-7
AD - Division of Epidemiology and Prevention, Aichi Cancer Center Research Institute, 1-1 Kanokoden, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8681, Japan. email@example.com
Oxidative stress is involved in many types of DNA damage, e.g., resulting in 8-hydroxyguanine adducts. Since a human counterpart exists for the yeast gene OGG1 (hOGG1) encoding an enzyme that repairs 8-hydroxyguanine, its polymorphism, Ser(326)Cys, might have potential as a genetic marker for cancer susceptibility. To investigate its association with stomach cancer risk and possible interactions with environmental factors, we conducted a case-control study of 101 stomach cancer cases and 198 controls using PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism and a questionnaire approach. The proportional distribution of the Cys/Cys alleles did not differ between stomach cancer cases and controls, but subgroup analyses revealed that a frequent drinking habit elevated the odds ratio (OR) for stomach cancer in Cys/Cys compared to Ser/Ser and Ser/Cys carriers. The ORs with frequent consumption of pickled vegetables and meat tended to be higher in Cys/Cys than in Ser/Ser and Ser/Cys carriers, these interactions being on the borderline of statistical significance. Our findings suggest that the hOGG1 Ser(326)Cys polymorphism may alter the impact of some environmental factors on stomach cancer development. For confirmation, an additional study with a larger number of subjects is now required. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
UI - 12109604
AU - Rosin RD
TI - Barrett's oesophagus--are British gastroenterologists denying their patients prevention of malignant change?
SO - J R Coll Surg Edinb 2002 Jun;47(3):521-2
AD - St Mary's Hospital, Imperial College School of Medicine, London, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org
Adenocarcinoma of the lower oesophagus is rapidly increasing in industrialised countries. The importance of Barrett's oesophagus is because of the potential for it to progress to oesophageal adenocarcinoma. It has a strong correlation to chronic GORD. Symptomatic patients or those with a long segment, if dysplasia is present or the patient is under 50 years of age, should be offered anti-reflux surgery. Patients may be denied the procedure by some gastroenterologists
UI - 12135726
AU - Zhu Z; Friess H; Kleeff J; Wang L; Wirtz M; Zimmermann A; Korc M;
TI - Buchler MW Glypican-3 expression is markedly decreased in human gastric cancer but not in esophageal cancer.
SO - Am J Surg 2002 Jul;184(1):78-83
AD - Department of Visceral and Transplantation Surgery, University of Bern, Inselspital, Bern, Switzerland.
BACKGROUND: Deregulation of the expression of glypican-3, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan, has been demonstrated in several human cancers. METHODS: In the present study, glypican-3 mRNA expression was analyzed by Northern blotting and in situ hybridization in 20 normal and 41 cancerous esophageal specimens as well as in 15 normal and 32 cancerous gastric tissues. RESULTS: Glypican-3 mRNA was expressed in both normal and esophageal cancer tissues without a significant difference between normal and cancerous tissues, and without a correlation with histological type, tumor stage, tumor grade, or patient survival. Moderate to strong glypican-3 mRNA signals were found in the cytoplasm of squamous epithelial cells of the normal esophagus. In both squamous and adenocarcinomas of the esophagus glypican-3 mRNA signals were also moderately to strongly present in the cytoplasm of the cancer cells. In gastric tissues, glypican-3 mRNA was present in 53% of normal gastric tissue samples, but was below the detection level in all examined gastric cancer samples. Glypican-3 mRNA signals were moderately to strongly present in the cytoplasm of gastric mucosal epithelial cells, but were only very faintly present in some cancer cells. CONCLUSIONS: Glypican-3 may be involved in the growth control of normal esophageal and gastric epithelial cells. Furthermore, our results suggest that glypican-3 may play a tumor suppressor role in gastric but not in esophageal cancer.
UI - 12048628
AU - Bhutani MS; Barde CJ; Markert RJ; Gopalswamy N
TI - Length of esophageal cancer and degree of luminal stenosis during upper endoscopy predict T stage by endoscopic ultrasound.
SO - Endoscopy 2002 Jun;34(6):461-3
AD - Center for Endoscopic Ultrasound, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555-0764, USA. email@example.com
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is considered to be the most accurate modality for T staging of esophageal cancer. This study attempted to determine whether endoscopic features such as the length and degree of luminal stenosis in esophageal cancer can predict the T stage on EUS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-five patients with newly diagnosed esophageal adenocarcinoma or squamous-cell carcinoma undergoing EUS prior to initiation of any treatment were included in the study. The length of the tumor was assessed prospectively during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) before EUS in 22 patients. Radial EUS was then performed in these patients. The other 13 patients had sufficient luminal stenosis to prevent complete advancement of the echo endoscope through the tumor. In these 13 patients, the length of the esophageal cancer was not examined, but the T and N stage up to the level of maximum advancement of the echo endoscope through the tumor were noted. RESULTS: All 13 patients with luminal stenosis had at least a T3 (n = 12) or T4 (n = 1) lesion up to the level of maximum advancement of the echo endoscope. Among the 22 patients in whom the length of the esophageal cancer was measured, the mean length in the 13 patients with a T1 or T2 lesion on EUS was 2.6 cm. The mean length in the nine patients with T3 esophageal cancer was 7.1 cm. The difference in the mean length of T1 or T2 lesions (2.6 cm) was significantly different ( P < 0.001) from the mean length of T3 lesions (7.1 cm). Using a clinical diagnostic testing approach, when > or = 5 cm length was used as a criteria for diagnosing T3 lesions, the sensitivity was 89 %, specificity 92 %, positive predictive value 89 %, and negative predictive value 92 %. There was also a suggestion of increased chances of lymph-node metastases with increasing length of esophageal cancer. CONCLUSIONS: In esophageal carcinoma, endoscopic features such as the length of the cancer and the degree of luminal stenosis correlate with T staging on EUS. Esophageal cancers that are > or = 5 cm in length, or are sufficiently stenotic to prevent passage of an endoscope, are much more likely to be T3 or higher-stage lesions, while those that are < 5 cm in length have a greater chance (92 %) of being T1 or T2.
UI - 12067587
AU - Wilp J; Zwickenpflug W; Richter E
TI - Nitrosation of dietary myosmine as risk factor of human cancer.
SO - Food Chem Toxicol 2002 Aug;40(8):1223-8
AD - Walther Straub Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Nussbaumstrasse 26, D-80336, Munich, Germany.
The tobacco alkaloid myosmine was detected in nut and nut products [J. Agric. Food Chem. 46 (1998) 2703]. Upon nitrosation, myosmine yields 4-hydroxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (HPB) and N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) [J. Agric. Food Chem. 48 (2001) 392]. NNN is a strong oesophageal carcinogen in rats. Metabolic activation of NNN leads to formation of DNA and protein adducts which release HPB upon hydrolysis. In the present study the time, pH and dose-dependent nitrosation of myosmine and its covalent binding to DNA was investigated. [5-(3)H]myosmine was incubated with nitrite for 1-24 h in buffer solutions adjusted to pH 1-6. At pH 2-4 myosmine was easily nitrosated and gave rise to two major products, HPB and NNN, and five minor not yet identified products. Maximal formation was achieved for HPB at pH 2 after 8 h (72% of total radioactivity) and for NNN at pH 3 after 8 h (16%). For DNA binding studies labeled myosmine was incubated under nitrosation conditions with calf thymus DNA. Within 3 h up to 0.1% of the radioactivity was covalently bound to DNA. Endogenous nitrosation of myosmine, present in nuts and other dietary components could constitute a significant risk factor for tumours in the upper intestinal tract such as oesophageal adenocarcinoma, which are unrelated to tobacco smoking and alcohol abuse.
UI - 12099649
AU - Nozoe T; Kimura Y; Ishida M; Saeki H; Korenaga D; Sugimachi K
TI - Correlation of pre-operative nutritional condition with post-operative complications in surgical treatment for oesophageal carcinoma.
SO - Eur J Surg Oncol 2002 Jun;28(4):396-400
AD - Department of Surgery and Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
Aims: The relationship between the pre-operative nutritional condition and the outcome of the surgical treatment in patients with oesophageal carcinoma has been discussed diversely. The aim of the current study was to demonstrate the relationship between pre-operative nutritional condition and post-operative complications and prognosis following surgical treatment for oesophageal carcinoma.Methods: Two hundred and fifty-eight patients with oesophageal carcinoma treated with oesophageal resection and reconstruction were selected. The correlation of pre-operative values of prognostic nutritional index (PNI) with the incidence of post-operative complications and prognosis of the patients was investigated.Results: The mean pre-operative value of PNI in patients with post-operative complications (41.8+/-5.4) was significantly lower than that in patients without post-operative complications (46.5+/-5.3; P<0.0001). The survival in patients with higher PNI value was significantly more favourable than that in patients with lower PNI value (P=0.0001).Conclusions: Pre-operative assessment of the nutritional condition could provide predictive information for post-operative complications in patients with oesophageal carcinoma. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
UI - 12110793
AU - Yoshioka S; Fujiwara Y; Sugita Y; Okada Y; Yano M; Tamura S; Yasuda T;
TI - Takiguchi S; Shiozaki H; Monden M Real-time rapid reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for intraoperative diagnosis of lymph node micrometastasis: clinical application for cervical lymph node dissection in esophageal cancers.
SO - Surgery 2002 Jul;132(1):34-40
AD - Department of Surgery and Clinical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, Japan.
BACKGROUND: New molecular techniques have been designed to detect cancer micrometastases that are otherwise missed by conventional histologic examination. The aim of this study was to establish a sensitive and rapid genetic assay to detect lymph node micrometastasis and to assess its usefulness clinically for cervical lymphadenectomy in esophageal cancer. We have recently shown that metastasis in the lymph node chain along the recurrent laryngeal nerves (rec LNs) is a predictor of cervical node metastasis in esophageal cancer. In our retrospective study, the positive rate of cervical lymph node metastasis with rec LNs metastasis was 51.6%, and the rate without rec LNs metastasis was 11.6%. There was a significant difference in both positive rates (P =.0002). METHODS: Rec LNs obtained from 50 patients with esophageal cancer were assessed prospectively by intraoperative histopathologic examination (HE) and genetic analysis. The latter involved a real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) system with multiple markers, carcinoembryonic antigen, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma antigen-3, whose messenger RNAs are highly and frequently expressed in esophageal cancers. Cervical lymphadenectomy was subsequently performed in a subset of these patients. RESULTS: Ten of 50 patients (20%) were scored as node positive by HE, and 24 patients (48%) were scored positive by genetic diagnosis, including 9 HE-positive cases. Genetic diagnosis of rec LNs accurately predicted all 9 cases with cervical lymph node metastasis and 2 cases with cervical lymph node recurrence, whereas HE missed 2 cases with cervical lymph node metastasis and 2 cases with cervical lymph node recurrence. CONCLUSIONS: Our real-time rapid RT-PCR assay can improve the sensitivity of HE for detection of lymph node metastasis and might be potentially useful for intraoperative genetic diagnosis for subsequent cervical lymphadenectomy in esophageal cancer surgery.
UI - 12110794
AU - Shimada H; Nabeya Y; Okazumi S; Matsubara H; Funami Y; Shiratori T;
TI - Hayashi H; Takeda A; Ochiai T Prognostic significance of serum p53 antibody in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
SO - Surgery 2002 Jul;132(1):41-7
AD - Department of Academic Surgery, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.
BACKGROUND: The p53 protein overexpression that usually results from genetic alterations has been reported to induce serum antibodies against p53. There is little information about the clinicopathologic and prognostic significance of preoperative serum p53 antibody in patients with esophageal cancer. METHODS: A highly specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to analyze serum p53 antibodies in 105 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The cutoff level of 1.3 U/mL was used to indicate seropositive patients, and the cutoff level of 10 U/mL was used to identify high titer patients. At 3 months after surgery, seropositive patients were examined again. RESULTS: A total of 28 patients (26.7%) were positive for serum p53 antibodies. The patients who remained seropositive were more likely to develop tumor recurrence (P =.025). Seropositive patients had worse outcome than seronegative patients. The high titer group had significant association with advanced tumor stages and worse outcomes than the low titer group. High serum p53 antibody titer was an independent prognostic factor (P <.001). CONCLUSIONS: We found that serum p53 antibody was useful to detect esophageal cancer and to identify those with a high risk of tumor recurrence and a poor prognosis.
UI - 12110801
AU - Shimada Y; Imamura M; Sato F; Maeda M; Kaganoi J; Hashimoto Y; Kan T;
TI - Nagatani S; Li Z Indications for abdominal para-aortic lymph node dissection in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
SO - Surgery 2002 Jul;132(1):93-9
AD - Department of Surgery and Surgical Basic Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kawaracho Shogoin Sakyo-ku, Japan.
BACKGROUND: Abdominal para-aortic lymph node (APAL) dissection of esophageal cancer is not widely accepted. The aim of this article is to propose the indications for APAL dissection in esophageal cancer patients from the viewpoint of micrometastases. METHODS: To evaluate the value of APAL dissection in patients with esophageal cancer, the status of APAL metastases and recurrence in 230 patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (1989 to 1998) was examined retrospectively. On the basis of our findings, 16 patients received a prophylactic APAL dissected lymph nodes were examined using cytokeratin staining and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of squamous cell carcinoma antigen messenger RNA. RESULTS: Among the 230 patients who had esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, 21 had APAL metastases (including micrometastases) or APAL recurrence. Among the 21 patients with APAL metastases and recurrence, 20 (95.2%) had metastases (including micrometastases) in perigastric lymph nodes (paracardial and lesser curvature nodes). Among 51 patients with lower thoracic esophageal carcinoma, 13 (25.5%) had APAL metastases or recurrence. On the basis of these results, prophylactic APAL dissection was performed in patients with lower thoracic esophageal cancer who were suspected of perigastric lymph node metastases during operations. APAL metastases (including micrometastases) were detected in 6 (38%) of these patients, and 2 patients with APAL micrometastases survived without recurrence. However, 7 patients had hematogenic recurrence after the operation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that the indications for APAL dissection were limited. Patients with lower thoracic esophageal cancer who are suspected to have perigastric lymph node metastasis and APAL micrometastases may be considered for APAL dissection.
UI - 12124811
AU - Xing D; Qi J; Miao X; Lu W; Tan W; Lin D
TI - Polymorphisms of DNA repair genes XRCC1 and XPD and their associations with risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a Chinese population.
SO - Int J Cancer 2002 Aug 10;100(5):600-5
AD - Department of Etiology and Carcinogenesis, Cancer Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.
Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), which is prevalent in China, is believed to be induced by environmental carcinogens. Accumulating evidence has shown that individual variation in DNA repair capacity resulting from genetic polymorphism influences risk of environmental carcinogenesis. We therefore investigated the associations between genetic polymorphisms in the DNA repair genes XRCC1 (Arg194Trp and Arg399Gln) and XPD (Asp312Asn and Lys751Gln) and risk of ESCC in an at-risk Chinese population. Genotypes were determined by a PCR-based approach in 433 patients with ESCC and 524 frequency-matched normal controls. We found that individuals with Trp/Trp genotype at XRCC1 Arg194Trp site had a 2-fold increased risk of this disease compared to Arg/Arg genotype (adjusted OR = 1.98; 95% CI 1.26-3.12). Furthermore, when compared to Arg/Arg and Arg/Trp genotype combined, homozygote for Trp/Trp genotype significantly increased the risk of developing ESCC, with the adjusted OR being 2.07 (95% CI 1.34-3.20). However, the XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism was not significantly associated with risk of ESCC, with the adjusted OR being 0.87 (95% CI 0.55-1.37). Neither Asp312Asn nor Lys751Gln polymorphisms in the XPD gene influenced risk of ESCC in our study. These findings suggest that DNA repair gene XRCC1 but not XPD might play a role in esophageal carcinogenesis and might represent a genetic determinant in the development of the cancer. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
UI - 12133514
AU - Wang Y; Sun Y; Liu Y; Li Y; Wang Z
TI - [Transesophageal intraluminal ultrasonography in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of esophageal leiomyoma]
SO - Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 2002 Apr 10;82(7):456-8
AD - Department of Thoracic Surgery, General Hospital of People's Liberation Army, Beijing 100853, China.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic and differential diagnostic values of transesophageal echo probe (TEEP) or endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of esophageal leiomyoma. among 23 patients with esophageal submucosal tumor and 11 patients with esophagus constricted from outside, among which 32 cases underwent CT too. All the patients except and 3 with constriction by aorta underwent surgical treatment. RESULTS: (1) The accuracy rate of diagnosis of esophageal leiomyoma by TEEP or EUS was 95.7% (22/23) in comparison with that by CT of only 42.9% (9/21, chi(2) = 14.69, P = 0.0196). (2) In the 11 patients with esophagi constricted by masses beyond or around esophagus, TEEP or EUS definitely differentiated the damage beyond or around esophagus from esophageal leiomyoma. CONCLUSION: Transesophageal intraluminal ultrasonography (TEEP and EUS) is a reliable method for the preoperative diagnosis and differential diagnosis of esophageal leiomyoma and is more accurate than CT.
UI - 11728233
AU - Anderson MR; Jankowski JA
TI - The treatment, management and prevention of oesophageal cancer.
SO - Expert Opin Biol Ther 2001 Nov;1(6):1017-28
AD - Epithelial Laboratory, Division of Medical Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, B15 2TH, UK.
The combination of a rising incidence and a poor survival rate makes oesophageal cancer a major health issue. Adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus is associated with one of the commonest pre-malignant lesions recognised, Barrett's metaplasia. This provides a focus for early detection and intervention. The subjects of acid suppression, bile reflux, COX-2 inhibition and ablation therapy will be discussed herewith. Established carcinoma is now rarely treated by surgery alone and this review discusses the benefits of multimodality therapy combined with more accurate staging techniques. Finally an emerging understanding of the molecular events that characterise the transition to carcinoma may provide novel targets in cancer therapy such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and TNF-alpha. This review will focus on some of the future developments in the treatment of oesophageal cancer.
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