Secondary Tumor--A tumor that develops as a result of metastases or spread beyond the original cancer.
Screening--The search for disease, such as cancer, in individuals without known symptoms. Screening may refer to coordinated mass programs in large populations.
Side Effects--Usually describes after effects or secondary effects of treatment. For example, hair loss may be a side effect of chemotherapy; nausea may be a side effect of radiation therapy or chemotherapy.
Sigmoidoscopy--The visual inspection of the rectum and lower colon by a tubular instrument called a sigmoidoscope passed through the rectum. The instrument may be either a rigid or flexible instrument. (See Procto)
Squamous Cell Carcinoma--A form of skin cancer that usually appears as red, scaly patches or nodules typically on lips, face, tips of ears. It can spread to other parts of the body if untreated.
Staging--An evaluation of the extent of disease, such as cancer. A classification based on stage at diagnosis helps determine appropriate treatment and prognosis.
Stoma--A surgically created opening. For example, a stoma is made in the abdominal wall for elimination of wastes when the colon and/or rectum can no longer perform this function. (See Colostomy)
Stool Blood Test--A simple chemical test to detect invisible (occult) blood in the feces. It is used to detect early signs of gastrointestinal conditions including polyps and cancers of the colon and rectum.
Surgery--A procedure to remove a part of the body or to find out if disease is present.