Loss is a universal experience repeatedly encountered
throughout life. Any loss results in a deprivation of some kind,
either tangible or symbolic. Grief may be described as the process
of psychologic, social, and somatic reactions to loss. The intensity
of grief reactions may vary across individuals and is influenced by
the type of loss, the situation surrounding the loss, the personality
of the bereaved, concurrent stressors or losses, the availability of
social support, and the strength of the attachment to the deceased.
Anticipatory grief refers to the anticipation of a future loss
and includes many of the symptoms and processes of grief after a
loss. Anticipatory grief may be experienced by the dying person
(e.g., loss of health, function, role) as well as his or her family
Worden (1991) identified tasks of mourning that guide survivors
toward adapting to life after the death of a loved one. The mourning
process is complete when the following tasks have been accomplished:
Accepting the reality of the loss
Working through the pain of grief
Adjusting to the world without the loved one
Reinvesting emotional energy into new relationships
Somatic reactions to grief may be experienced by bereaved
individuals in any combination of the following ways:
Appetite disturbance (loss or gain of weight)
Gastrointestinal disturbances (diarrhea)
Inability to sleep
Tendency to sigh
Lack of strength
Feelings of emptiness or heaviness
Feelings of "something caught in the throat"
Nervousness or tension
Loss of sexuality or hyper sexuality
Lack of energy or psychomotor retardation
Restlessness or searching for something to do
Shortness of breath
Psychosocial effects of normal grief include any combination of
Lack of support from one's religious belief system
Lack of a supportive family
History of psychiatric illness
Multiple concurrent losses
Dysfunctional family relationships
Geographic distant from extended family.
Guilt within family relationships
High level of dependency among survivors
Ambivalent relationships within family
Explain symptoms of the grief response. Give written
information about expected somatic and psychosocial grief reactions
to grieving survivors.
Explain the process of mourning. Give written information
about grieving process to survivors.
Patients and family members may be comforted by the
presence of clergy from their religious tradition. Provide
information about available pastoral care services through the agency and determine whether the family would like to contact clergy of their choice.
Provide time and privacy: facilitate the practice of rituals
(e.g., prayer) during the terminal phase of illness.
Refer to community-based mutual support groups. Support groups provide membership and friendship in a setting that offers exchange of information about grief, coping, and community resources. Participation in a support group has the potential to boost self-esteem.
Kubler-Ross E: On Death and Dying. New York: Macmillan, 1969.
Parkes CM & Weiss RS: Recovery from Bereavement. New York: Basic Books, 1983.
Worden, JW: Grief Counseling and Grief Therapy. 2nd Ed. New
York: Springer Publishing Co , 1991.
Jul 1, 2010 - Immunosuppressive treatment with cyclosporine A, rather than tacrolimus, with dose level monitoring two hours post-dosing or in patients age 50 or younger appears to have a significant association with the development of de novo cancer after liver transplantation, according to research published in the July issue of Liver Transplantation.